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Konstantinos Margetis, Prajwal Rajappa, William Cope, David Pisapia, and Mark M. Souweidane

A 21-year-old man presented with triventricular hydrocephalus due to a tectal mass. He underwent an endoscopic third ventriculostomy, and multiple nodules were identified at the floor of the third ventricle intraoperatively. Surgical pathology of one of these lesions demonstrated that the tissue represented a low-grade astrocytoma. The case highlights the existing potential of neuroendoscopy to reveal neuroimaging-occult lesions, in spite of the significant advances of MRI. Furthermore, the combination of the age of the patient, the nonenhancing MRI appearance, and the multifocality of the lesions constitutes a rare and interesting neoplastic presentation within the brain. The constellation of findings likely represents dissemination of a low-grade tectal glioma via the CSF compartment.

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Swathi Chidambaram, Susan C. Pannullo, Michelle Roytman, David J. Pisapia, Benjamin Liechty, Rajiv S. Magge, Rohan Ramakrishna, Philip E. Stieg, Theodore H. Schwartz, and Jana Ivanidze

OBJECTIVE

There is a need for advanced imaging biomarkers to improve radiation treatment planning and response assessment. T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI (DCE MRI) allows quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion and blood-brain barrier dysfunction and has entered clinical practice in the management of primary and secondary brain neoplasms. The authors sought to retrospectively investigate DCE MRI parameters in meningiomas treated with resection and adjuvant radiation therapy using volumetric segmentation.

METHODS

A retrospective review of more than 300 patients with meningiomas resected between January 2015 and December 2018 identified 14 eligible patients with 18 meningiomas who underwent resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients were excluded if they did not undergo adjuvant radiation therapy or DCE MRI. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained and compared to DCE perfusion metrics, including mean plasma volume (v p), extracellular volume (v e), volume transfer constant (K trans), rate constant (k ep), and wash-in rate of contrast into the tissue, which were derived from volumetric analysis of the enhancing volumes of interest.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 64 years (range 49–86 years), and 50% of patients (7/14) were female. The average tumor volume was 8.07 cm3 (range 0.21–27.89 cm3). The median Ki-67 in the cohort was 15%. When stratified by median Ki-67, patients with Ki-67 greater than 15% had lower median v p (0.02 vs 0.10, p = 0.002), and lower median wash-in rate (1.27 vs 4.08 sec−1, p = 0.04) than patients with Ki-67 of 15% or below. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant, moderate positive correlation between v e and time to progression (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a moderate positive correlation between K trans and time to progression, which approached, but did not reach, statistical significance (r = 0.48, p = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates a potential role for DCE MRI in the preoperative characterization and stratification of meningiomas, laying the foundation for future prospective studies incorporating DCE as a biomarker in meningioma diagnosis and treatment planning.

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Evan D. Bander, Harminder Singh, Colin B. Ogilvie, Ryan C. Cusic, David J. Pisapia, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Vijay K. Anand, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Planum sphenoidale (PS) and tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas cause visual symptoms due to compression of the optic chiasm. The treatment of choice is surgical removal with the goal of improving vision and achieving complete tumor removal. Two options exist to remove these tumors: the transcranial approach (TCA) and the endonasal endoscopic approach (EEA). Significant controversy exists regarding which approach provides the best results and whether there is a subset of patients for whom an EEA may be more suitable. Comparisons using a similar cohort of patients, namely, those suitable for gross-total resection with EEA, are lacking from the literature.

METHODS

The authors reviewed all cases of PS and TS meningiomas that were surgically removed at Weill Cornell Medical College between 2000 and 2015 (TCA) and 2008 and 2015 (EEA). All cases were shown to a panel of 3 neurosurgeons to find only those tumors that could be removed equally well either through an EEA or TCA to standardize both groups. Volumetric measurements of preoperative and postoperative tumor size, FLAIR images, and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were assessed by 2 independent reviewers and compared to assess extent of resection and trauma to the surrounding brain. Visual outcome and complications were also compared.

RESULTS

Thirty-two patients were identified who underwent either EEA (n = 17) or TCA (n = 15). The preoperative tumor size was comparable (mean 5.58 ± 3.42 vs 5.04 ± 3.38 cm3 [± SD], p = 0.661). The average extent of resection achieved was not significantly different between the 2 groups (98.80% ± 3.32% vs 95.13% ± 11.69%, p = 0.206). Postoperatively, the TCA group demonstrated a significant increase in the FLAIR/edema signal compared with EEA patients (4.15 ± 7.10 vs −0.69 ± 2.73 cm3, p = 0.014). In addition, the postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging signal of cytotoxic ischemic damage was significantly higher in the TCA group than in the EEA group (1.88 ± 1.96 vs 0.40 ± 0.55 cm3, p =0.008). Overall, significantly more EEA patients experienced improved or stable visual outcomes compared with TCA patients (93% vs 56%, p = 0.049). Visual deterioration was greater after TCA than EEA (44% vs 0%, p = 0.012). While more patients experienced postoperative seizures after TCA than after EEA (27% vs 0%, p = 0.038), there was a trend toward more CSF leakage and anosmia after EEA than after TCA (11.8% vs 0%, p = 0.486 and 11.8% vs 0%, p = 0.118, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

In this small single-institution study of similarly sized and located PS and TS meningiomas, EEA provided equivalent rates of resection with better visual results, less trauma to the brain, and fewer seizures. These preliminary results merit further investigation in a larger multiinstitutional study and may support EEA resection by experienced surgeons in a subset of carefully selected PS and TS meningiomas.

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Sacit Bulent Omay, Yu-Ning Chen, Joao Paulo Almeida, Armando Saul Ruiz-Treviño, John A. Boockvar, Philip E. Stieg, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Mark M. Souweidane, Ashutosh Kacker, David J. Pisapia, Vijay K. Anand, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Exome sequencing studies have recently demonstrated that papillary craniopharyngiomas (PCPs) and adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (ACPs) have distinct genetic origins, each primarily driven by mutually exclusive alterations: either BRAF (V600E), observed in 95% of PCPs, or CTNNB1, observed in 75%–96% of ACPs. How the presence of these molecular signatures, or their absence, correlates with clinical, radiographic, and outcome variables is unknown.

METHODS

The pathology records for patients who underwent surgery for craniopharyngiomas between May 2000 and March 2015 at Weill Cornell Medical College were reviewed. Craniopharyngiomas were identified and classified as PCP or ACP. Patients were placed into 1 of 3 groups based on their genomic mutations: BRAF mutation only, CTNNB1 mutation only, and tumors with neither of these mutations detected (not detected [ND]). Demographic, radiological, and clinical variables were collected, and their correlation with each genomic group was tested.

RESULTS

Histology correlated strongly with mutation group. All BRAF tumors with mutations were PCPs, and all CTNNB1 with mutations and ND tumors were ACPs. Preoperative and postoperative clinical symptoms and radiographic features did not correlate with any mutation group. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.0323) between the age group (pediatric vs adult) and the mutation groups. The ND group tumors were more likely to involve the sella (p = 0.0065).

CONCLUSIONS

The mutation signature in craniopharyngioma is highly predictive of histology. The subgroup of tumors in which these 2 mutations are not detected is more likely to occur in children, be located in the sella, and be of ACP histology.

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Diana A. Roth O’Brien, Sydney M. Kaye, Phillip J. Poppas, Sean S. Mahase, Anjile An, Paul J. Christos, Benjamin Liechty, David Pisapia, Rohan Ramakrishna, AG Wernicke, Jonathan P. S. Knisely, Susan C. Pannullo, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Publications on adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are largely limited to patients completing SRS within a specified time frame. The authors assessed real-world local recurrence (LR) for all brain metastasis (BM) patients referred for SRS and identified predictors of SRS timing.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified BM patients undergoing resection and referred for SRS between 2012 and 2018. Patients were categorized by time to SRS, as follows: 1) ≤ 4 weeks, 2) > 4–8 weeks, 3) > 8 weeks, and 4) never completed. The relationships between timing of SRS and LR, LR-free survival (LRFS), and survival were investigated, as well as predictors of and reasons for specific SRS timing.

RESULTS

In a cohort of 159 patients, the median age at resection was 64.0 years, 56.5% of patients were female, and 57.2% were in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class II. The median preoperative tumor diameter was 2.9 cm, and gross-total resection was achieved in 83.0% of patients. All patients were referred for SRS, but 20 (12.6%) did not receive it. The LR rate was 22.6%, and the time to SRS was correlated with the LR rate: 2.3% for patients receiving SRS at ≤ 4 weeks postoperatively, 14.5% for SRS at > 4–8 weeks (p = 0.03), and 48.5% for SRS at > 8 weeks (p < 0.001). No LR difference was seen between patients whose SRS was delayed by > 8 weeks and those who never completed SRS (48.5% vs 50.0%; p = 0.91). A similar relationship emerged between time to SRS and LRFS (p < 0.01). Non–small cell lung cancer pathology (p = 0.04), earlier year of treatment (p < 0.01), and interval from brain MRI to SRS (p < 0.01) were associated with longer intervals to SRS. The rates of receipt of systemic therapy also differed significantly between patients by category of time to SRS (p = 0.02). The most common reasons for intervals of > 4–8 weeks were logistic, whereas longer delays or no SRS were caused by management of systemic disease or comorbidities.

CONCLUSIONS

Available data on LR rates after adjuvant SRS are often obtained from carefully preselected patients receiving timely treatment, whereas significantly less information is available on the efficacy of adjuvant SRS in patients treated under “real-world” conditions. Management of these patients may merit reconsideration, particularly when SRS is not delivered within ≤ 4 weeks of resection. The results of this study indicate that a substantial number of patients referred for SRS either never receive it or are treated > 8 weeks postoperatively, at which time the SRS-treated patients have an LR risk equivalent to that of patients who never received SRS. Increased attention to the reasons for prolonged intervals from surgery to SRS and strategies for reducing them is needed to optimize treatment. For patients likely to experience delays, other radiotherapy techniques may be considered.