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David M. Panczykowski and David O. Okonkwo

Object

Acute subdural hematomas (SDHs) impart serious morbidity and mortality on the elderly population, with only 5% of those older than 65 years of age attaining functional independence. Despite its widespread use, oral antithrombotic therapy (OAT) in the context of acute SDH has not been extensively studied. The authors sought to evaluate the impact of premorbid OAT on recurrence of SDH, radiographic outcome, and mortality in patients undergoing surgical evacuation of an acute SDH.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective comparative cohort study reviewing all surgically treated cases of acute SDH at their institution between September 2005 and December 2008. They assessed baseline demographics, coagulation parameters, surgical management, and clinical course. Study end points included additional craniotomy for SDH reaccumulation, follow-up Rotterdam score, recurrent SDH volumetric analysis, Glasgow Outcome Score, and death.

Results

A total of 300 patients with acute SDH treated by craniotomy were assessed. Of these patients, 49% (148 patients) were receiving OAT. Of those who were on a regimen of OAT, 49% were taking warfarin (mean international normalized ratio 3.1 ± 1.8), 31% were receiving antiplatelet therapy, and 20% were on a regimen of a combination of agents. On presentation, 72% of those using OAT received reversal agents. Recurrence of SDH necessitating additional evacuation was not significantly different with respect to premorbid OAT status (13% vs 14%). Patients with a history of OAT did not demonstrate a significant difference in Rotterdam score (2 vs 2), recurrent SDH volume (24.1 vs 19.6 cm3), GOS score (4 vs 3), or mortality (21% vs 24%). These findings remained stable after controlling for age, injury mechanism, and injury severity.

Conclusions

Premorbid OAT was not a significant risk factor for recurrence of SDH necessitating additional evacuation following acute SDH. Additionally, postoperative Rotterdam score, volume of SDH reaccumulation, and overall mortality were not predicted by antithrombotic history. While premorbid use may predispose the patient to an SDH, OAT does not increase the risk of morbidity or mortality following surgical intervention.

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David Panczykowski, Andrew N. Nemecek and Nathan R. Selden

In this report, the authors describe the case of a 3-year-old child with a traumatic Type III odontoid fracture. To their knowledge, this is the first reported case of a true Type III odontoid fracture with atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in a child. The patient presented with pain and had resisted manipulation of the neck following a motor vehicle crash. Plain cervical radiographs revealed an odontoid fracture, which was confirmed by CT imaging. The left lateral mass of C-1 was rotated anterior to that of C-2 with the displaced odontoid process acting as the pivot point of rotation. The C1–2 alignment was normalized, and the C-2 fracture was reduced completely. The regional anatomy and mechanism of injury, radiographic diagnosis, and management of cervical spine injuries in children are discussed.

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David M. Panczykowski, Nestor D. Tomycz and David O. Okonkwo

Object

The current standard of practice for clearance of the cervical spine in obtunded patients suffering blunt trauma is to use CT and an adjuvant imaging modality (such as MR imaging). The objective of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of multislice helical CT alone to diagnose acute unstable cervical spine injury following blunt trauma.

Methods

The authors performed a meta-analysis of studies comparing modern CT with adjunctive imaging modalities and required that studies present acute traumatic findings as well as treatment for unstable injuries. Study quality, population characteristics, diagnostic protocols, and outcome data were extracted. Positive disease status included all injuries necessitating surgical or orthotic stabilization identified on imaging and/or clinical follow-up.

Results

Seventeen studies encompassing 14,327 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity for modern CT were both > 99.9% (95% CI 0.99–1.00 and 0.99–1.00, respectively). The negative likelihood ratio of an unstable cervical injury after a CT scan negative for acute injury was < 0.001 (95% CI 0.00–0.01), while the negative predictive value of a normal CT scan was 100% (95% CI 0.96–1.00). Global severity of injury, CT slice thickness, and study quality did not significantly affect accuracy estimates.

Conclusions

Modern CT alone is sufficient to detect unstable cervical spine injuries in trauma patients. Adjuvant imaging is unnecessary when the CT scan is negative for acute injury. Results of this meta-analysis strongly show that the cervical collar may be removed from obtunded or intubated trauma patients if a modern CT scan is negative for acute injury.

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Matthew B. Maserati, Matthew J. Tormenti, David M. Panczykowski, Christopher M. Bonfield and Peter C. Gerszten

Object

The authors report the use and preliminary results of a novel hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion construct for the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar spine pathology.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent posterior lumbar instrumentation with the Dynesys-to-Optima (DTO) hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion system. Preoperative symptoms, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, perioperative complications, and the need for subsequent revision surgery were recorded. Each patient was then contacted via telephone to determine current symptoms and VAS score. Follow-up was available for 22 of 24 patients, and the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 22 months. Clinical outcome was gauged by comparing VAS scores prior to surgery and at the time of telephone interview.

Results

A total of 24 consecutive patients underwent lumbar arthrodesis surgery in which the hybrid system was used for adjacent-level dynamic stabilization. The mean preoperative VAS score was 8.8, whereas the mean postoperative VAS score was 5.3. There were five perioperative complications that included 2 durotomies and 2 wound infections. In addition, 1 patient had a symptomatic medially placed pedicle screw that required revision. These complications were not thought to be specific to the DTO system itself. In 3 patients treatment failed, with treatment failure being defined as persistent preoperative symptoms requiring reoperation.

Conclusions

The DTO system represents a novel hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion construct. The technique holds promise as an alternative to multilevel lumbar arthrodesis while potentially decreasing the risk of adjacent-segment disease following lumbar arthrodesis. The technology is still in its infancy and therefore follow-up, when available, remains short. The authors report their preliminary experience using a hybrid system in 24 patients, along with short-interval clinical and radiographic follow-up.

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Zachary J. Tempel, Michael M. McDowell, David M. Panczykowski, Gurpreet S. Gandhoke, D. Kojo Hamilton, David O. Okonkwo and Adam S. Kanter

OBJECTIVE

Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a less invasive surgical option commonly used for a variety of spinal conditions, including in high-risk patient populations. LLIF is often performed as a stand-alone procedure, and may be complicated by graft subsidence, the clinical ramifications of which remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize further the sequelae of graft subsidence following stand-alone LLIF.

METHODS

A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted on consecutive patients who underwent stand-alone LLIF between July 2008 and June 2015; 297 patients (623 levels) met inclusion criteria. Imaging studies were examined to grade graft subsidence according to Marchi criteria, and compared between those who required revision surgery and those who did not. Additional variables recorded included levels fused, DEXA (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) T-score, body mass index, and routine demographic information. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test, chi-square analysis, and logistic regression analysis to identify potential confounding factors.

RESULTS

Of 297 patients, 34 (11.4%) had radiographic evidence of subsidence and 18 (6.1%) required revision surgery. The median subsidence grade for patients requiring revision surgery was 2.5, compared with 1 for those who did not. Chi-square analysis revealed a significantly higher incidence of revision surgery in patients with high-grade subsidence compared with those with low-grade subsidence. Seven of 18 patients (38.9%) requiring revision surgery suffered a vertebral body fracture. High-grade subsidence was a significant predictor of the need for revision surgery (p < 0.05; OR 12, 95% CI 1.29–13.6), whereas age, body mass index, T-score, and number of levels fused were not. This relationship remained significant despite adjustment for the other variables (OR 14.4; 95% CI 1.30–15.9).

CONCLUSIONS

In this series, more than half of the patients who developed graft subsidence following stand-alone LLIF required revision surgery. When evaluating patients for LLIF, supplemental instrumentation should be considered during the index surgery in patients with a significant risk of graft subsidence.

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Vincent C. Traynelis and Manish K. Kasliwal

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David J. Salvetti, Zachary J. Tempel, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Nicole A. Colwell, Federico Angriman, David M. Panczykowski, Nitin Agarwal, Adam S. Kanter and David O. Okonkwo

OBJECTIVE

Nutritional deficiency negatively affects outcomes in many health conditions. In spine surgery, evidence linking preoperative nutritional deficiency to postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) has been limited to small retrospective studies. Authors of the current study analyzed a large consecutive cohort of patients who had undergone elective spine surgery to determine the relationship between a serum biomarker of nutritional status (preoperative prealbumin levels) and SSI.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of the electronic medical charts of patients who had undergone posterior spinal surgeries and whose preoperative prealbumin level was available. Additional data pertinent to the risk of SSI were also collected. Patients who developed a postoperative SSI were identified, and risk factors for postoperative SSI were analyzed. Nutritional deficiency was defined as a preoperative serum prealbumin level ≤ 20 mg/dl.

RESULTS

Among a consecutive series of 387 patients who met the study criteria for inclusion, the infection rate for those with preoperative prealbumin ≤ 20 mg/dl was 17.8% (13/73), versus 4.8% (15/314) for those with preoperative prealbumin > 20 mg/dl. On univariate and multivariate analysis a low preoperative prealbumin level was a risk factor for postoperative SSI with a crude OR of 4.29 (p < 0.01) and an adjusted OR of 3.28 (p = 0.02). In addition, several previously known risk factors for infection, including diabetes, spinal fusion, and number of operative levels, were significant for the development of an SSI.

CONCLUSIONS

In this consecutive series, preoperative prealbumin levels, a serum biomarker of nutritional status, correlated with the risk of SSI in elective spine surgery. Prehabilitation before spine surgery, including strategies to improve nutritional status in patients with nutritional deficiencies, may increase value and improve spine care.

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Ramesh Grandhi, Gregory M. Weiner, Nitin Agarwal, David M. Panczykowski, William J. Ares, Jesse S. Rodriguez, Jonathan A. Gelfond, John G. Myers, Louis H. Alarcon, David O. Okonkwo and Brian T. Jankowitz

OBJECTIVE

Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) following trauma carry risk for morbidity and mortality. Since patients with BCVI are often asymptomatic at presentation and neurological sequelae often occur within 72 hours, timely diagnosis is essential. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) has been shown to be a noninvasive, cost-effective, reliable means of screening; however, the false-positive rate of CTA in diagnosing patients with BCVI represents a key drawback. Therefore, the authors assessed the role of DSA in the screening of BCVI when utilizing CTA as the initial screening modality.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of patients who experienced BCVI between 2013 and 2015 at 2 Level I trauma centers. All patients underwent CTA screening for BCVI according to the updated Denver Screening Criteria. Patients who were diagnosed with BCVI on CTA underwent confirmatory digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Patient demographics, screening indication, BCVI grade on CTA and DSA, and laboratory values were collected. Comparison of false-positive rates stratified by BCVI grade on CTA was performed using the chi-square test.

RESULTS

A total of 140 patients (64% males, mean age 50 years) with 156 cerebrovascular blunt injuries to the carotid and/or vertebral arteries were identified. After comparison with DSA findings, CTA findings were incorrect in 61.5% of vessels studied, and the overall CTA false-positive rates were 47.4% of vessels studied and 47.9% of patients screened. The positive predictive value (PPV) for CTA was higher among worse BCVI subtypes on initial imaging (PPV 76% and 97%, for BCVI Grades II and IV, respectively) compared with Grade I injuries (PPV 30%, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

In the current series, multidetector CTA as a screening test for blunt cerebrovascular injury had a high-false positive rate, especially in patients with Grade I BCVI. Given a false-positive rate of 47.9% with an estimated average of 132 patients per year screening positive for BCVI with CTA, approximately 63 patients per year would potentially be treated unnecessarily with antithrombotic therapy at a busy United States Level I trauma center. The authors’ data support the use of DSA after positive findings on CTA in patients with suspected BCVI. DSA as an adjunctive test in patients with positive CTA findings allows for increased diagnostic accuracy in correctly diagnosing BCVI while minimizing risk from unnecessary antithrombotic therapy in polytrauma patients.

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Ramesh Grandhi, Douglas Kondziolka, David Panczykowski, Edward A. Monaco III, Hideyuki Kano, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

To better establish the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in treating patients with 10 or more intracranial metastases, the authors assessed clinical outcomes and identified prognostic factors associated with survival and tumor control in patients who underwent radiosurgery using the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGK PFX) unit.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed data in all patients who had undergone LGK PFX surgery to treat 10 or more brain metastases in a single session at the University of Pittsburgh. Posttreatment imaging studies were used to assess tumor response, and patient records were reviewed for clinical follow-up data. All data were collected by a neurosurgeon who had not participated in patient care.

Results

Sixty-one patients with 10 or more brain metastases underwent SRS for the treatment of 806 tumors (mean 13.2 lesions). Seven patients (11.5%) had no previous therapy. Stereotactic radiosurgery was the sole prior treatment modality in 8 patients (13.1%), 22 (36.1%) underwent whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) only, and 16 (26.2%) had prior SRS and WBRT. The total treated tumor volume ranged from 0.14 to 40.21 cm3, and the median radiation dose to the tumor margin was 16 Gy. The median survival following SRS for 10 or more brain metastases was 4 months, with improved survival in patients with fewer than 14 brain metastases, a nonmelanomatous primary tumor, controlled systemic disease, a better Karnofsky Performance Scale score, and a lower recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Prior cerebral treatment did not influence survival. The median survival for a patient with fewer than 14 brain metastases, a nonmelanomatous primary tumor, and controlled systemic disease was 21.0 months. Sustained local tumor control was achieved in 81% of patients. Prior WBRT predicted the development of new adverse radiation effects.

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiosurgery safely and effectively treats intracranial disease with a high rate of local control in patients with 10 or more brain metastases. In patients with fewer metastases, a nonmelanomatous primary lesion, controlled systemic disease, and a low RPA class, SRS may be most valuable. In selected patients, it can be considered as first-line treatment.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010