Minimally invasive approaches to the cervical spine for lateral disc herniation or foraminal stenosis have recently been described. Lower rates of blood loss, decreased narcotic dependence, and less tissue destruction as well as shorter hospital stays are all advantages of utilizing these techniques. These observations can also be realized with a minimal access approach to cervical laminoplasty. Multiple levels of the cervical spine can be treated from a posterior approach with the potential to decrease the incidences of postoperative axial neck pain and kyphotic deformity. In this report the authors present a concise history of the open laminoplasty technique, provide data from previous cadaveric studies (6 cases) along with recent clinical experience for minimally invasive laminoplasty, and describe the advantages and challenges of this novel procedure.
David M. Benglis Jr., James D. Guest and Michael Y. Wang
David M. Benglis Jr., Steve Vanni and Allan D. Levi
Minimally invasive anterolateral approaches to the lumbar spine are options for the treatment of a number of adult degenerative spinal disorders. Nerve injuries during these surgeries, although rare, can be devastating complications. With an increasing number of spine surgeons utilizing minimal access retroperitoneal surgery to treat lumbar problems, the frequency of complications associated with this approach will likely increase. The authors sought to better understand the location of the lumbar contribution of the lumbosacral plexus relative to the disc spaces encountered when performing the minimally invasive transpsoas approach, also known as extreme lateral interbody fusion or direct lateral interbody fusion.
Three fresh cadavers were placed lateral, and a total of 3 dissections of the lumbar contribution of the lumbosacral plexus were performed. Radiopaque soldering wire was then laid along the anterior margin of the nerve fibers and the exiting femoral nerve. Markers were placed at the disc spaces and lateral fluoroscopy was used to measure the location of the lumbar plexus along each respective disc space in the lumbar spine (L1–2, L2–3, L3–4, and L4–5).
The lumbosacral plexus was found lying within the substance of the psoas muscle between the junction of the transverse process and vertebral body and exited along the medial edge of the psoas distally. The lumbosacral plexus was most dorsally positioned at the posterior endplate of L1–2. A general trend of progressive ventral migration of the plexus on the disc space was noted at L2–3, L3–4, and L4–5. Average ratios were calculated at each level (location of the plexus from the dorsal endplate to total disc length) and were 0 (L1–2), 0.11 (L2–3), 0.18 (L3–4), and 0.28 (L4–5).
This anatomical study suggests that positioning the dilator and/or retractor in a posterior position of the disc space may result in nerve injury to the lumbosacral plexus, especially at the L4–5 level. The risk of injuring inherent nerve branches directed to the psoas muscle as well as injury to the genitofemoral nerve do still exist.
David Benglis Jr., Derek Covington, Ritwik Bhatia, Sanjiv Bhatia, Mohamed Samy Elhammady, John Ragheb, Glenn Morrison and David I. Sandberg
The natural history of untreated Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is poorly defined. The object of this study was to investigate outcomes in pediatric patients with CM-I who were followed up without surgical intervention.
The authors retrospectively reviewed 124 cases involving patients with CM-I who presented between July 1999 and July 2008 and were followed up without surgery. The patients ranged in age from 0.9 to 19.8 years (mean 7 years). The duration of follow-up ranged from 1.0 to 8.6 years (mean 2.83 years). Imaging findings, symptoms, and findings on neurological examinations were noted at presentation and for the duration of follow-up.
The mean extent of tonsillar herniation at presentation was 8.35 mm (range 5–22 mm). Seven patients had a syrinx at presentation. The syrinx size did not change in these patients on follow-up imaging studies. No new syrinxes developed in the remaining patients who underwent subsequent imaging. The total number of patients with presenting symptoms was 81. Of those 81 patients, 67 demonstrated symptoms that were not typical of CM-I. Of the 14 patients with symptoms attributed to CM-I, 9 had symptoms that were not severe or frequent enough to warrant surgery, and surgery was recommended in the remaining 5 patients. Chiari malformation Type I was also diagnosed in 43 asymptomatic patients who had imaging studies performed for various reasons. No new neurological deficits were noted in any patient for the duration of follow-up.
The majority of patients with CM-I who are followed up without surgery do not progress clinically or radiologically. Longer follow-up of this cohort will be required to determine if symptoms or new neurological findings develop over the course of many years.