Ectopic cilia are extremely rare congenital anomalies in which eyelash follicles appear in an abnormal place on the eyelid, most typically on the lateral quadrant of the anterior surface of the upper eyelid. In the majority of cases, simple surgical excision of ectopic cilia is indicated because of its cosmetic aspect. There is usually no associated medical co-morbidity with this anomaly. The authors report an unusual case of ectopic cilia associated with an orbital dermoid cyst and sinus tract. A 3-year-old boy was initially diagnosed with ectopic cilia on the left upper eyelid. There was no history of inflammation or swelling of the eyelid. An ophthalmological examination revealed only 1 mm of ptosis; no proptosis, inferior displacement, or palpable orbital mass was present. During surgical excision of the ectopic cilia, a thin sinus tract was identified, leading posteriorly to the orbit. Magnetic resonance imaging performed after the excision showed a supraorbital extraconal mass just below the roof of the left orbit. A supraorbital 2-piece craniotomy was performed with total extirpation of the dermoid cyst. The cyst was removed en bloc without damage to the extraocular muscles, but the sinus tract could no longer be identified. Follow-up MRI was performed 6 months after surgery and showed no evidence of recurrence. A follow-up ophthalmological examination showed no signs of inferior displacement or proptosis. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this case is the first reported instance of ectopic cilia associated with a dermoid cyst and sinus tract in which no typical clinical signs and symptoms of possible orbital pathology were present. This case highlights the value of radiological examination in all cases of ectopic cilia prior to surgical excision.
David Krahulík, Marta Karhanová, Miroslav Vaverka, Světlana Brychtová and Dagmar Pospíšilová
David Krahulik, Jirina Zapletalova, Zdenek Frysak and Miroslav Vaverka
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of serious morbidity and mortality. The incidence is 100–500/100,000 inhabitants/year. Chronic pituitary dysfunction is increasingly recognized after TBI. To define the incidence of endocrine dysfunction and risk factors, the authors describe a prospectively assessed group of patients in whom they documented hormonal functions, early diagnosis, and treatment of neuroendocrine dysfunction after TBI.
Patients aged 18–65 years were prospectively observed from the time of injury to 1 year postinjury; the Glasgow Coma Scale score ranged from 3 to 14. Patients underwent evaluation of hormonal function at the time of injury and at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Magnetic resonance imaging was also conducted at 1 year postinjury.
During the study period, 89 patients were observed. The mean age of the patients was 36 years, there were 23 women, and the median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 7. Nineteen patients (21%) had primary hormonal dysfunction. Major deficits included growth hormone dysfunction, hypogonadism, and diabetes insipidus. Patients in whom the deficiency was major had a worse Glasgow Outcome Scale score, and MR imaging demonstrated empty sella syndrome more often than in patients without a deficit.
To the authors' knowledge, this is the third largest study of its kind worldwide. The incidence of chronic hypopituitarism after TBI was higher than the authors expected. After TBI, patients are usually observed on the neurological and rehabilitative wards, and endocrine dysfunction can be overlooked. This dysfunction can be life threatening and other clinical symptoms can worsen the neurological deficit, extend the duration of physiotherapy, and lead to mental illness. The authors recommend routine pituitary hormone testing after moderate or severe TBI within 6 months and 1 year of injury.