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Brandon A. Miller, David I. Bass and Joshua J. Chern

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are typically considered congenital lesions, although there is growing evidence for de novo formation of these lesions as well. The authors present the case of an AVM in the same cerebral cortex that had been affected by a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) more than 6 years earlier. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report attributing the formation of an AVM directly to TBI.

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Robert H. Bonow, Christopher C. Young, David I. Bass, Anne Moore and Michael R. Levitt

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is an inexpensive, noninvasive means of measuring blood flow within the arteries of the brain. In this review, the authors outline the technology underlying TCD ultrasonography and describe its uses in patients with neurosurgical diseases. One of the most common uses of TCD ultrasonography is monitoring for vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this setting, elevated blood flow velocities serve as a proxy for vasospasm and can herald the onset of ischemia. TCD ultrasonography is also useful in the evaluation and management of occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Monitoring for microembolic signals enables stratification of stroke risk due to carotid stenosis and can also be used to clarify stroke etiology. TCD ultrasonography can identify patients with exhausted cerebrovascular reserve, and after extracranial-intracranial bypass procedures it can be used to assess adequacy of flow through the graft. Finally, assessment of cerebral autoregulation can be performed using TCD ultrasonography, providing data important to the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. As the clinical applications of TCD ultrasonography have expanded over time, so has their importance in the management of neurosurgical patients. Familiarity with this diagnostic tool is crucial for the modern neurological surgeon.