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Editorial

Unruptured aneurysms

David G. Piepgras

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Ashvin T. Ragoowansi and David G. Piepgras

✓ The case of an ectopic craniopharyngioma arising from a seed of tissue deposited along the operative track is reported. The uniqueness of this lesion is addressed. Ideal therapy and controversies regarding radiation therapy of craniopharyngiomas are discussed in light of this new variation in recurrence.

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Jonathan A. Friedman and David G. Piepgras

Object

Vascular bypass is performed in neurosurgery for a variety of pathological entities, including extracranial atherosclerotic disease, extra- and intracranial aneurysms, and tumors involving the carotid artery (CA) at the skull base or cervical regions. Creation of an interposition saphenous vein graft (SVG) is the typical method of choice when the superficial temporal artery is not an option.

Methods

One hundred thirty consecutive patients treated with SVG between July 1988 and December 2002 at the Mayo Clinic were studied. A total of 130 procedures were performed in 130 patients. The indications were intracranial aneurysm in 51 patients (39%), CA occlusive disease in 36 (28%), extracranial CA aneurysm in 17 (13%), tumors involving the cervical CA in 11 (8%), vertebral artery occlusive disease in eight (6%), and other indications in six patients (5%). Among patients treated for intracranial aneurysms, 43 harbored giant aneurysms (> 25 mm in widest diameter) whereas the remaining eight patients harbored aneurysms that were large (15–25 mm in widest diameter). Among patients with CA occlusive disease, high-grade stenosis at the CA bifurcation was present in 29 and CA occlusion was demonstrated in seven.

Conclusions

The use of SVG bypass remains a valuable component of the neurosurgical armamentarium for a variety of pathological entities. Despite a general trend toward decreased use because of improved endovascular technology, surgical facility with this procedure should be maintained.

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Vini G. Khurana, David G. Piepgras, and Jack P. Whisnant

Object

The present study was conducted to estimate the frequency and timing of rebleeding after initial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured giant aneurysms.

Methods

The authors reviewed records of 109 patients who suffered an initial SAH from a giant aneurysm and were treated at the Mayo Clinic between 1973 and 1996. They represented 25% of patients with giant intracranial aneurysms seen at this institution during that 23-year period. Seven of the patients were residents of Rochester, Minnesota, and the rest were referred from other institutions. The aneurysms ranged from 25 to 60 mm in diameter, and 74% were located on arteries of the anterior intracranial circulation. The cumulative frequency of rebleeding at 14 days after admission was 18.4%. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage, cerebral angiography, and delayed aneurysm recurrence were implicated in rebleeding in some of the patients. Rebleeding was not precluded by intraaneurysm thrombosis. Among those who suffered recurrent SAH at the Mayo Clinic, 33% died in the hospital.

Conclusions

Rebleeding from giant aneurysms occurs at a rate comparable to that associated with smaller aneurysms, a finding that should be considered in management strategies.

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David G. Piepgras, Vini G. Khurana, and Jack P. Whisnant

Object. This retrospective study was made to determine the relationship between surgical timing and outcome in all patients with ruptured giant intracranial aneurysms undergoing surgical treatment at the Mayo Clinic between 1973 and 1996.

Methods. The authors studied 109 patients, 102 of whom were referred from other medical centers. The ruptured giant aneurysms were 25 to 60 mm in diameter. One hundred five of the patients survived the rupturing of the aneurysm to undergo operation, with direct surgery possible in 84% of cases. Excluding delayed referrals, the average time to surgery after admission to the Mayo Clinic was approximately 4 to 5 days. Patients admitted earlier tended to be in poorer condition, often undergoing earlier operation. On average, surgical treatment was administered later for patients with ruptured aneurysms of the posterior circulation than for those with aneurysms in the anterior circulation. Temporary occlusion of the parent vessel was necessary in 67% of direct procedures, with an average occlusion time of 15 minutes. Among surgically treated patients, a favorable outcome was achieved in 72% harboring ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms and in 78% with ruptured posterior circulation lesions.

Conclusions. The overall management mortality rate was 21.1%, and the mortality rate for surgical management was 8.6%. The authors believe that because of the technical difficulties and risk of rebleeding associated with ruptured giant intracranial aneurysms, timely referral to and well-planned treatment at medical centers specializing in management of these lesions are essential to effect a more favorable outcome.

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Vini G. Khurana, David G. Piepgras, and Jack P. Whisnant

Object. The present study was conducted to estimate the frequency and timing of rebleeding after initial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured giant aneurysms.

Methods. The authors reviewed records of 109 patients who suffered an initial SAH from a giant aneurysm and were treated at the Mayo Clinic between 1973 and 1996. They represented 25% of patients with giant intracranial aneurysms seen at this institution during that 23-year period. Seven of the patients were residents of Rochester, Minnesota, and the rest were referred from other institutions. The aneurysms ranged from 25 to 60 mm in diameter, and 74% were located on arteries of the anterior intracranial circulation. The cumulative frequency of rebleeding at 14 days after admission was 18.4%. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage, cerebral angiography, and delayed aneurysm recurrence were implicated in rebleeding in some of the patients. Rebleeding was not precluded by intraaneurysm thrombosis. Among those who suffered recurrent SAH at the Mayo Clinic, 33% died in the hospital.

Conclusions. Rebleeding from giant aneurysms occurs at a rate comparable to that associated with smaller aneurysms, a finding that should be considered in management strategies.

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David G. Piepgras, Vini G. Khurana, and Douglas A. Nichols

✓ The authors describe a unique clinicopathological phenomenon in a patient who presented with an unruptured giant vertebral artery aneurysm and who underwent endovascular proximal occlusion of the parent artery followed, several days later, by surgical trapping of the aneurysm after delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The intraoperative finding of a thrombus extruding from the wall of the aneurysm at a site remote from the origin of the SAH underscores the possibility that occult rupture of an aneurysmal sac can occur in patients with thrombosed giant aneurysms.

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Wouter I. Schievink, Bahram Mokri, and David G. Piepgras

✓ The pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms and spontaneous cervical artery dissection is incompletely understood but a primary arteriopathy, possibly similar in both disorders, may be of importance. To investigate the frequency of intracranial aneurysms in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection, the angiograms of 164 patients who were diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic as having spontaneous extracranial carotid or vertebral artery dissection were reviewed. Thirteen intracranial aneurysms were detected in nine (5.5%) of the 164 patients: eight (8.8%) of the 91 female patients and one (1.4%) of the 73 male patients. The frequency of intracranial aneurysms in these patients was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in a recent angiographic study from the same institution, estimating the frequency of intracranial aneurysms in the general population (1.1%). The significance of these findings is discussed.

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Frederic P. Collignon, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, and David G. Piepgras

✓✓ The authors describe the case of a 38-year-old man with progressive headache and blurred vision related to a hemangiopericytoma located exclusively in the confluence of sinuses (CoS) and in the transverse sinuses bilaterally. They believe this is the first report in which a hemangiopericytoma of the dural sinuses has been described without any intradural component. Although the diagnosis was not suspected preoperatively, a gross-total resection of the tumor with restoration of sinus patency was achieved to relieve the symptoms. This diagnosis should be included in the preoperative differential diagnosis of a tumor of the CoS. Successful resection can be achieved in these cases.