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Sapan D. Gandhi, David S. Liu, Evan D. Sheha, and Matthew W. Colman

OBJECTIVE

Lateral lumbar corpectomy with interbody fusion has been well described via a transpsoas approach in the lateral position, as has lumbar interbody fusion with posterior fixation in the prone position. However, no previous report has described the use of both an open posterior approach and a lateral transpsoas approach simultaneously in the prone position. Here, the authors describe their technique of performing transpsoas lumbar corpectomy in the prone position in order to have simultaneous posterior and lateral access for difficult clinical scenarios, and they report their early clinical experience.

METHODS

The surgical technique for simultaneous posterior and lateral transpsoas access to the lumbar spine was reviewed and described in detail. The cases of 2 patients who underwent simultaneous posterior and lateral access in the prone position for complex lumbar pathology were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical presentation, preoperative radiographs, postoperative course, and postoperative radiographs were reviewed.

RESULTS

The first patient presented after previous transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion that was complicated by significant subsidence of the intervertebral cage, vertebral body split fracture, rotational instability, and resulting spinal stenosis. A simultaneous posterior and lateral transpsoas approach in the prone position allowed for removal of the previous cage, lumbar corpectomy, and rigid posterior fixation with direct decompression. The second patient had a significant pathologic burst fracture secondary to a plasmacytoma with retropulsion, resulting in vertebra plana and significant canal stenosis. Simultaneous approaches allowed for complete resection of the plasmacytoma, restoration of lumbar alignment, rigid fixation, and direct posterior decompression. There were no short-term complications, and both patients had resolution of their preoperative symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS

Simultaneous posterior and lateral transpsoas access to the lumbar spine in the prone position is a previously unreported technique that allows a safe surgical approach to difficult clinical scenarios.

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Sarah B. Rockswold, Gaylan L. Rockswold, David A. Zaun, and Jiannong Liu

Object

Preclinical and clinical investigations indicate that the positive effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs after rather than during treatment. The brain appears better able to use baseline O2 levels following HBO2 treatments. In this study, the authors evaluate the combination of HBO2 and normobaric hyperoxia (NBH) as a single treatment.

Methods

Forty-two patients who sustained severe TBI (mean Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 5.7) were prospectively randomized within 24 hours of injury to either: 1) combined HBO2/NBH (60 minutes of HBO2 at 1.5 atmospheres absolute [ATA] followed by NBH, 3 hours of 100% fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] at 1.0 ATA) or 2) control, standard care. Treatments occurred once every 24 hours for 3 consecutive days. Intracranial pressure, surrogate markers for cerebral metabolism, and O2 toxicity were monitored. Clinical outcome was assessed at 6 months using the sliding dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Mixed-effects linear modeling was used to statistically test differences between the treatment and control groups. Functional outcome and mortality rates were compared using chi-square tests.

Results

There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the 2 groups. In comparison with values in the control group, brain tissue partial pressure of O2 (PO2) levels were significantly increased during and following combined HBO2/NBH treatments in both the noninjured and pericontusional brain (p < 0.0001). Microdialysate lactate/pyruvate ratios were significantly decreased in the noninjured brain in the combined HBO2/NBH group as compared with controls (p < 0.0078). The combined HBO2/NBH group's intracranial pressure values were significantly lower than those of the control group during treatment, and the improvement continued until the next treatment session (p < 0.0006). The combined HBO2/NBH group's levels of microdialysate glycerol were significantly lower than those of the control group in both noninjured and pericontusional brain (p < 0.001). The combined HBO2/NBH group's level of CSF F2-isoprostane was decreased at 6 hours after treatment as compared with that of controls, but the difference did not quite reach statistical significance (p = 0.0692). There was an absolute 26% reduction in mortality for the combined HBO2/NBH group (p = 0.048) and an absolute 36% improvement in favorable outcome using the sliding dichotomized GOS (p = 0.024) as compared with the control group.

Conclusions

In this Phase II clinical trial, in comparison with standard care (control treatment) combined HBO2/NBH treatments significantly improved markers of oxidative metabolism in relatively uninjured brain as well as pericontusional tissue, reduced intracranial hypertension, and demonstrated improvement in markers of cerebral toxicity. There was significant reduction in mortality and improved favorable outcome as measured by GOS. The combination of HBO2 and NBH therapy appears to have potential therapeutic efficacy as compared with the 2 treatments in isolation. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00170352 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

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Kang-Du Liu, Wen-Yuh Chung, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Cheng-Ying Shiau, Ling-Wei Wang, Wan-You Guo, and David Hung-Chi Pan

Object. The authors sought to determine the value of gamma knife surgery (GKS) in the treatment of cavernous hemangiomas (CHs).

Methods. Between 1993 and 2002, a total of 125 patients with symptomatic CHs were treated with GKS. Ninety-seven patients presented with bleeding and 45 of these had at least two bleeding episodes. Thirteen patients presented with seizures combined with hemorrhage, and 15 patients presented with seizures alone. The mean margin dose of radiation was 12.1 Gy and the mean follow-up time was 5.4 years.

In the 112 patients who had bled the number of rebleeds after GKS was 32. These rebleeds were defined both clinically and based on magnetic resonance imaging for an annual rebleeding rate of 32 episodes/492 patient-years or 6.5%. Twenty-three of the 32 rebleeding episodes occurred within 2 years after GKS. Nine episodes occurred after 2 years; thus, the annual rebleeding rate after GKS was 10.3% for the first 2 years and 3.3% thereafter (p = 0.0038). In the 45 patients with at least two bleeding episodes before GKS, the rebleeding rate dropped from 29.2% (55 episodes/188 patient-years) before treatment to 5% (10 episodes/197 patient-years) after treatment (p < 0.0001). Among the 28 patients who presented with seizures, 15 (53%) had good outcomes (Engel Grades I and II). In this study of 125 patients, symptomatic radiation-induced complications developed in only three patients.

Conclusions. Gamma knife surgery can effectively reduce the rebleeding rate after the first symptomatic hemorrhage in patients with CH. In addition, GKS may be useful in reducing the severity of seizures in patients with CH.

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David Hung-chi Pan, Wen-yuh Chung, Wan-yuo Guo, Hsiu-mei Wu, Kang-du Liu, Cheng-ying Shiau, and Ling-wei Wang

Object. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of radiosurgery for the treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) located in the region of the transverse—sigmoid sinus.

Methods. A series of 20 patients with DAVFs located in the transverse—sigmoid sinus, who were treated with gamma knife surgery between June 1995 and June 2000, was evaluated. According to the Cognard classification, the DAVF was Type I in four patients, Type IIa in seven, Type IIb in two, and combined Type IIa+b in seven. Nine patients had previously been treated with surgery and/or embolization, whereas 11 patients underwent radiosurgery alone. Radiosurgery was performed using multiple-isocenter irradiation of the delineated DAVF nidus. The target volume ranged from 1.7 to 40.7 cm3. The margin dose delivered to the nidus ranged from 16.5 to 19 Gy at a 50 to 70% isodose level.

Nineteen patients were available for follow-up review, the duration of which ranged from 6 to 58 months (median 19 months). Of the 19 patients, 14 (74%) were cured of their symptoms. At follow up, magnetic resonance imaging and/or angiography demonstrated complete obliteration of the DAVF in 11 patients (58%), subtotal obliteration (95% reduction of the nidus) in three (16%), and partial obliteration in another five (26%). There was no neurological complication related to the treatment. One patient experienced a recurrence of the DAVF 18 months after angiographic confirmation of total obliteration, and underwent a second course of radiosurgery.

Conclusions. Stereotactic radiosurgery provides a safe and effective option for the treatment of DAVFs involving the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. For some aggressive DAVFs with extensive retrograde cortical venous drainage, however, a combination of endovascular embolization and surgery may be necessary.

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David J. Moller, Nicholas P. Slimack, Frank L. Acosta Jr., Tyler R. Koski, Richard G. Fessler, and John C. Liu

Object

Recently, the minimally invasive, lateral retroperitoneal, transpsoas approach to the thoracolumbar spinal column has been described by various authors. This is known as the minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the approach-related morbidity associated with the minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine. To date, there have been only a couple of reports regarding the morbidity of the transpsoas muscle approach.

Methods

A nonrandomized, prospective study utilizing a self-reported patient questionnaire was conducted between January 2006 and June 2008 at Northwestern University. Data were collected in 53 patients with a follow-up period ranging from 6 months to 3.5 years. Only 2 patients were lost to follow-up.

Results

Thirty-six percent (19 of 53) of patients reported subjective hip flexor weakness, 25% (13 of 53) anterior thigh numbness, and 23% (12 of 53) anterior thigh pain. However, 84% of the 19 patients reported complete resolution of their subjective hip flexor weakness by 6 months, and most experienced improved strength by 8 weeks. Of those reporting anterior thigh numbness and pain, 69% and 75% improved to their baseline function by the 6-month follow-up evaluations, respectively. All patients with self-reported subjective hip flexor weakness underwent examinations during subsequent clinic visits after surgery; however, these examinations did not confirm a motor deficit less than Grade 5. Subset analysis showed that the L3–4 and L4–5 levels were most often affected.

Conclusions

The minimally invasive, transpsoas muscle approach to the lumbar spine has a number of advantages. The data show that a percentage of the patients undergoing the transpsoas approach will have temporary sensory and motor symptoms related to this approach. The majority of the symptoms are thought to be related to psoas muscle inflammation and/or stretch injury to the genitofemoral nerve due to the surgical corridor traversed during the operation. No major injuries to the lumbar plexus were encountered. It is important to educate patients prior to surgery of the possibility of these largely transient symptoms.

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Frank L. Acosta Jr., John Liu, Nicholas Slimack, David Moller, Richard Fessler, and Tyler Koski

Object

The lateral transpsoas approach for lumbar interbody fusion is a minimal access technique that has been used by some to treat lumbar degenerative conditions, including degenerative scoliosis. Few studies, however, have analyzed its effect on coronal and sagittal plane correction, and no study has compared changes in segmental, regional, and global coronal and sagittal alignment after this technique. The object of this study was to determine changes in sagittal and coronal plane alignment occurring after direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF).

Methods

The authors performed a review of the radiographic records of 36 patients with lumbar degenerative disease treated with the DLIF technique. Thirty-five patients underwent supplemental posterior fixation to maintain correction. Preoperative and postoperative standing anteroposterior and lateral lumbar radiographs were obtained in all patients for measurement of segmental and regional coronal and sagittal Cobb angles. Standing anteroposterior and lateral 36-in radiographs were also obtained in 23 patients for measurement of global coronal (center sacral vertebral line) and sagittal (C-7 plumb line) balance.

Results

The mean coronal segmental Cobb angle was 4.5° preoperatively, and it was 1.5° postoperatively (p < 0.0001). The mean pre- and postoperative regional lumbar coronal Cobb angles were 7.6° and 3.6°, respectively (p = 0.0001). In 8 patients with degenerative scoliosis, the mean pre- and postoperative regional lumbar coronal Cobb angles were 21.4° and 9.7°, respectively (p = 0.0004). The mean global coronal alignment was 19.1 mm preoperatively, and it was 12.5 mm postoperatively (p < 0.05). In the sagittal plane, the mean segmental Cobb angle measured −5.3° preoperatively and −8.2° postoperatively (p < 0.0001). The mean pre- and postoperative regional lumbar lordoses were 42.1° and 46.2°, respectively (p > 0.05). The mean global sagittal alignment was 41.5 mm preoperatively and 42.4 mm postoperatively (p = 0.7). The average clinical follow-up was 21 months in 21 patients. The mean pre- and postoperative visual analog scale scores were 7.7 and 2.9, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean pre- and postoperative Oswestry Disability Indices were 43 and 21, respectively (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

Direct lateral interbody fusion significantly improves segmental, regional, and global coronal plane alignment in patients with degenerative lumbar disease. Although DLIF increases the segmental sagittal Cobb angle at the level of instrumentation, it does not improve regional lumbar lordosis or global sagittal alignment.

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Troels Halfeld Nielsen and Carl-Henrik Nordström

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David W. Herzig, Andrew B. Stemer, Randy S. Bell, Ai-Hsi Liu, Rocco A. Armonda, and William O. Bank

Stenosis of central veins (brachiocephalic vein [BCV] and superior vena cava) occurs in 30% of hemodialysis patients, rarely producing intracranial pathology. The authors present the first cases of BCV stenosis causing perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and myoclonic epilepsy.

In the first case, a 73-year-old man on hemodialysis presented with headache and blurry vision, and was admitted with presumed idiopathic intracranial hypertension after negative CT studies and confirmatory lumbar puncture. The patient mildly improved until hospital Day 3, when he experienced a seizure; emergency CT scans showed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography failed to find any vascular abnormality, but demonstrated venous congestion. A fistulogram found left BCV occlusion with jugular reflux. The occlusion could not be reopened percutaneously and required open fistula ligation. Postoperatively, symptoms resolved and the patient remained intact at 7-month follow-up.

In the second case, a 67-year-old woman on hemodialysis presented with right arm weakness and myoclonic jerks. Admission MRI revealed subcortical edema and a possible dural arteriovenous fistula. Cerebral angiography showed venous engorgement, but no vascular malformation. A fistulogram found left BCV stenosis with jugular reflux, which was immediately reversed with angioplasty and stent placement. Postprocedure the patient was seizure free, and her strength improved. Seven months later the patient presented in myoclonic status epilepticus, and a fistulogram revealed stent occlusion. Angioplasty successfully reopened the stent and she returned to baseline; she was seizure free at 4-month follow-up.

Central venous stenosis is common with hemodialysis, but rarely presents with neurological findings. Prompt recognition and endovascular intervention can restore normal venous drainage and resolve symptoms.

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Ludmila Belayev, David A. Becker, Ofelia F. Alonso, Yitao Liu, Raul Busto, James J. Ley, and Myron D. Ginsberg

Object. Stilbazulenyl nitrone (STAZN) is a second-generation azulenyl nitrone that has markedly enhanced antioxidant properties compared with those of conventional alpha-phenyl nitrones. In this study, the authors assessed the potential efficacy of STAZN in a rodent model of fluid-percussion brain injury, which results in a consistent cortical contusion.

Methods. After anesthesia had been induced in normothermic Sprague—Dawley rats (brain temperature 36–36.5°C) by halothane—nitrous oxide, the animals were subjected to a right parietooccipital parasagittal fluid-percussion injury (1.5–2 atm). The agent (STAZN, 30 mg/kg; eight animals) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; eight animals) was administered intraperitoneally at 5 minutes and 4 hours after trauma. The neurological status of each rat was evaluated on Days 1, 2, and 7 postinjury (normal score 0, maximum injury 12). Seven days after trauma, the rat brains were perfusion fixed, coronal sections at various levels were digitized, and areas of contusion were measured. Treatment with STAZN significantly improved neurological scores on Days 2 and 7 postinjury compared with vehicle-treated rats. Administration of STAZN also significantly reduced the total contusion area by 63% (1.8 ± 0.5 mm2 in STAZN-treated animals compared with 4.8 ± 2.1 mm2 in vehicle-treated animals; p = 0.04) and the deep cortical contusion area by 60% (1.2 ± 0.2 mm2 in STAZN-treated animals compared with 2.9 ± 1.2 mm2 in vehicle-treated animals; p = 0.03). By contrast, hippocampal cell loss in the CA3 sector was unaffected by STAZN treatment.

Conclusions. Therapy with STAZN, a novel potent antioxidant, administered following traumatic brain injury, markedly improves neurological and histological outcomes. Azulenyl nitrones appear to represent a promising class of neuroprotective agents for combating this devastating condition.

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Dennis R. Buis and W. Peter Vandertop