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Jacob K. Greenberg and David D. Limbrick Jr.

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Ralph G. Dacey Jr., Gregory J. Zipfel, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

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Brandon A. Miller, Afshin Salehi, David D. Limbrick Jr., and Matthew D. Smyth

OBJECTIVE

The ROSA device is a robotic stereotactic arm that uses a laser system to register the patient’s head or spine with MR or CT images. In this study, the authors analyze their experience with this system in pediatric neurosurgical applications and present selected cases that exemplify the usefulness of this system.

METHODS

The authors reviewed all cases that utilized the ROSA system at their institution. Patient demographics, pathology, complications, electrode placement, laser ablation, and biopsy accuracy were analyzed. Patient disposition and condition at follow-up were also analyzed.

RESULTS

Seventeen patients underwent 23 procedures using the ROSA system. A total of 87 electroencephalography electrodes were placed, with 13% deviating more than 3 mm from target. Six patients underwent stereotactic needle biopsy, and 9 underwent laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). One patient who underwent LITT required a subsequent craniotomy for tumor resection. Another patient experienced an asymptomatic extraaxial hematoma that spontaneously resolved. No patient suffered neurological complications during follow-up. Follow-up from the last procedure averaged 180 days in epilepsy patients and 309 days in oncology patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The precision, ease of use, and versatility of the ROSA system make it well suited for pediatric neurosurgical practice. Further work, including long-term analysis of results and cost-effectiveness, will help determine the utility of this system and if its applications can be expanded.

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Alexander T Yahanda, Laura E Simon, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is often used for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), but outcomes associated with different dural graft materials are not well characterized. In this meta-analysis, the authors examined complication rates and outcomes after PFDD for CM-I for autografts and four types of nonautologous grafts.

METHODS

A literature search of numerous electronic databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov) was performed to identify articles detailing complications for dural graft materials after PFDD. Whenever available, data were also extracted regarding the need for revision surgery, symptom changes after PFDD, and syrinx size changes after PFDD. All searches were compliant with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Institute of Medicine, Standards for Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, and Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies guidelines. There were no exclusion criteria based on patient age or presence or absence of syringomyelia.

RESULTS

The current evidence surrounding outcomes for various dural graft materials was found to be of low or very low quality. Twenty-seven studies were included, encompassing 1461 patients. Five types of dural graft materials were included: autograft (n = 404, 27.6%), synthetic (n = 272, 18.6%), bovine pericardium (n = 181, 12.4%), collagen-based (n = 397, 27.2%), and allograft (n = 207, 14.2%). Autograft was associated with a significantly lower rate of pseudomeningocele compared to collagen-based grafts, allografts, and nonautologous grafts in aggregate. Autograft was also associated with the lowest rates of aseptic meningitis, infectious meningitis, and need for revision PFDD, though these associations did not reach statistical significance. No other graft comparisons yielded significant results. Autograft and nonautologous graft materials yielded similar rates of revision surgery and produced similar improvements in postoperative symptoms and syrinx size.

CONCLUSIONS

Autograft was the dural graft material that most frequently had the lowest rate of complications and was associated with significantly lower rates of pseudomeningocele compared to collagen-based graft, allograft, and nonautologous graft materials. Autografts and nonautologous grafts yielded similar outcomes for revision surgery, symptoms, and syrinx size. Large prospective studies comparing different graft materials are needed to accurately and precisely characterize outcomes for individual graft types.

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Alexander T Yahanda, Laura E Simon, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is often used for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), but outcomes associated with different dural graft materials are not well characterized. In this meta-analysis, the authors examined complication rates and outcomes after PFDD for CM-I for autografts and four types of nonautologous grafts.

METHODS

A literature search of numerous electronic databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov) was performed to identify articles detailing complications for dural graft materials after PFDD. Whenever available, data were also extracted regarding the need for revision surgery, symptom changes after PFDD, and syrinx size changes after PFDD. All searches were compliant with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Institute of Medicine, Standards for Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, and Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies guidelines. There were no exclusion criteria based on patient age or presence or absence of syringomyelia.

RESULTS

The current evidence surrounding outcomes for various dural graft materials was found to be of low or very low quality. Twenty-seven studies were included, encompassing 1461 patients. Five types of dural graft materials were included: autograft (n = 404, 27.6%), synthetic (n = 272, 18.6%), bovine pericardium (n = 181, 12.4%), collagen-based (n = 397, 27.2%), and allograft (n = 207, 14.2%). Autograft was associated with a significantly lower rate of pseudomeningocele compared to collagen-based grafts, allografts, and nonautologous grafts in aggregate. Autograft was also associated with the lowest rates of aseptic meningitis, infectious meningitis, and need for revision PFDD, though these associations did not reach statistical significance. No other graft comparisons yielded significant results. Autograft and nonautologous graft materials yielded similar rates of revision surgery and produced similar improvements in postoperative symptoms and syrinx size.

CONCLUSIONS

Autograft was the dural graft material that most frequently had the lowest rate of complications and was associated with significantly lower rates of pseudomeningocele compared to collagen-based graft, allograft, and nonautologous graft materials. Autografts and nonautologous grafts yielded similar outcomes for revision surgery, symptoms, and syrinx size. Large prospective studies comparing different graft materials are needed to accurately and precisely characterize outcomes for individual graft types.

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James T. Rutka

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Jeffrey H. Miller, David D. Limbrick Jr., Matthew Callen, and Matthew D. Smyth

The spontaneous resolution of isolated tonsillar ectopia in Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is a known and reported entity in 2 previous single study case reports. However, it has not been previously described in monozygotic twins. Two children, ~ 1 year of age with CM-I and presumed episodes of pallid syncope or breath-holding spells presented for neurosurgical evaluation. Although Chiari decompression was considered, the authors decided to proceed with conservative management with close follow-up due to the uncertain nature of these episodes. Approximately 4 years later, both children's symptoms had resolved. Repeated MR imaging examinations also showed spontaneous resolution of the malformation in both girls. These cases emphasize that when patients with CM-I present with atypical symptoms, spontaneous resolution or improvement is possible, which may influence the decision to pursue a trial of nonsurgical management. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms and genetic influences of CM-I are also briefly discussed.

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Michael Anthony Ciliberto, David Limbrick, Alexander Powers, Jeffrey B. Titus, Rebecca Munro, and Matthew D. Smyth

Object

Intractable epilepsy is a significant burden on families and on the cognitive development and quality of life (QOL) of patients. Periinsular hemispherotomy (PIH) for medically intractable epilepsy can benefit patients who qualify for this procedure. The ideal hemispherotomy candidate has ipsilateral ictal and interictal epileptiform activity, unilateral MR imaging abnormalities, contralateral hemiplegia, and a normal contralateral hemisphere. However, certain patients present with a mixed picture of bilateral electroencephalography (EEG) findings and severe intractable epilepsy, prompting consideration of a more aggressive treatment approach. This report introduces the possibility of surgery for patients who normally would not meet criteria for this treatment modality.

Methods

In this retrospective chart review, the authors report on 7 patients with bilateral seizure onset noted on routine or video-EEG monitoring. A QOL phone questionnaire, based on the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy tool, was administered to a parent. The authors reviewed each patient's chart for surgical complications, changes in examination, QOL, limited neuropsychological outcomes, and seizure outcomes. They also investigated each chart for MR imaging and EEG findings as well as the patient's epilepsy clinic notes for seizure semiology and frequency.

Results

All patients enjoyed a decrease in seizure frequency and a subjective increase in QOL after PIH. Five patients (71%) achieved Engel Class I or II seizure control. The mean follow-up was 3.64 years (2–5.3 years). One patient is now off all antiseizure medication. No patient had a decrement in Full Scale IQ on postsurgical testing, and 2 (28.5%) of 7 individuals had increased adaptive and social functioning. Postsurgical examination changes included hemiplegia and homonymous hemianopia.

Conclusions

Hemispherotomy in patients with intractable epilepsy is generally reserved for individuals with unilateral epileptiform abnormalities or lesions on MR imaging. Seven patients in this study benefited from surgery despite bilateral seizure onset with improvement in seizure control and overall QOL. Thus, bilateral ictal onset does not necessarily preclude consideration for hemispherotomy in selected patients with severe medically refractory epilepsy.

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Laleh Jalilian, David D. Limbrick Jr., Karen Steger-May, Jim Johnston, Alex K. Powers, and Matthew D. Smyth

Object

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anterior versus complete sectioning of the corpus callosum in children suffering from medically refractory epilepsy. The authors report seizure outcome in patients who underwent anterior two-thirds or complete corpus callosotomy (CC) during the period 1995–2008 at St. Louis Children's Hospital.

Methods

The medical records of 27 children and adolescents with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were retrospectively evaluated with respect to seizure status, anticonvulsant outcomes, and subjective results. Preoperatively, patients suffered from a variety of seizure types that occurred daily, weekly, or episodically. The male/female ratio was 19:8, and patients ranged in age between 3 and 19 years (mean 9.93 years). Seizure outcome, parental assessment of daily function, and changes in the number of prescribed antiepileptic drugs were all assessed.

Results

Fifteen patients underwent an initial anterior two-thirds CC, and 12 underwent a complete CC. Of the 15 patients who underwent an anterior CC, 7 went on to receive a posterior CC. Seizure control was superior in children undergoing a complete CC (91%, Class I–III) versus an anterior two-thirds CC (75%, Class I–III). Seizure types most affected by CC included atonic, myoclonic, and absence. The number of postoperative antiepileptic drugs did not significantly change following CC in either the anterior only or complete groups. One patient experienced a transient disconnection syndrome that resolved within 4 weeks, and 4 patients experienced mild hemiparesis and speech delays that resolved with therapy. Three patients experienced surgical complications requiring a second operation. The overall daily function and attentiveness of the patients improved.

Conclusions

A complete CC should be considered as the initial procedure in lower-functioning children afflicted by absence, atonic, or myoclonic seizures. Severely affected higher-functioning children may also benefit from a complete CC, without clinically significant disconnection syndromes. A completion posterior CC may benefit patients in whom a prior anterior CC has failed.

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David D. Limbrick Jr., Amir Behdad, Colin P. Derdeyn, Phillip L. Custer, Gregory J. Zipfel, and Paul Santiago

Traumatic, nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is common after closed head injury and most often results from ruptured cortical microvessels. Here, the authors present the case of a 60-year-old woman who fell and struck her head, causing traumatic enucleation and avulsion of both the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery. The arterial avulsion caused a Fisher Grade 3 SAH. During her stay in the intensive care unit, hydrocephalus and vasospasm developed, clinical conditions commonly observed after aneurysmal SAH. Epileptiform activity also developed, although this may have been related to concurrent Pantoea agglomerans ventriculitis. It is reasonable to suggest that intracerebral arterial avulsion with profuse arterial bleeding may be more likely than traditional traumatic SAH to result in clinical events similar to that of aneurysmal SAH. Special consideration should be given to the acute care of patients with intracranial arterial avulsions (conservative management vs surgical exploration or endovascular treatment), as well as long-term follow-up for vascular or other neurosurgical complications.