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Panya Luksanapruksa, Jacob M. Buchowski, Neill M. Wright, Frank H. Valone III, Colleen Peters, and David B. Bumpass

OBJECTIVE

The incidence of suboccipital spinal metastases is rare but has increased given cancer patients' longer life expectancies. Operative treatment in this region is often challenging because of limited fixation points due to tumor lysis, as well as adjacent neural and vascular anatomy. Few studies have reported on this population of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and complications of patients with suboccipital spinal metastases who had undergone posterior occipitocervical fixation.

METHODS

A single-institution database was reviewed to identify patients with suboccipital metastases who had undergone posterior-only instrumented fusion between 1999 and 2014. Clinical presentation, perioperative complications, and postoperative results were analyzed. Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale. Survival analysis was performed using a Kaplan-Meier curve. The revised Tokuhashi and the Tomita scoring systems were used for prognosis prediction.

RESULTS

Fifteen patients were identified, 10 men and 5 women with mean age of 64.8 ± 11.8 years (range 48–80 years). Severe neck pain without neurological deficit was the most common presentation. Primary tumors included lung, breast, bladder, myeloma, melanoma, and renal cell cancers. All tumors occurred in the axis vertebra. Preoperative Tokuhashi and Tomita scores ranged from 5 to 13 and 3 to 7, respectively. All patients had undergone occipitocervical fusion of a mean of 4.6 levels (range 2–7 levels). Median survival was 10.3 months. In all cases, neck pain markedly improved and patients were able to resume activities of daily living. The average postoperative pain score was significantly improved as compared with the average preoperative score (1.90 ± 2.56 and 5.50 ± 2.99, respectively, p = 0.01). Three patients experienced postoperative medical complications including urinary tract infection, deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrhythmia. In the follow-up period, no wound infections or reoperations occurred and no patients experienced spinal cord deficits from tumor recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS

Posterior-only occipitocervical stabilization was highly effective at relieving patients' neck pain. No instrumentation failures were noted, and no neurological complications or tumor progression causing spinal cord deficits was noted in the follow-up period.

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Eric Feuchtbaum, James P. Wondra II, David B. Bumpass, Lukas P. Zebala, Lawrence G. Lenke, and Michael P. Kelly

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alvimopan administration after posterior spinal fusion (PSF) in adult spine surgery patients who are taking opioid agents.

METHODS

In this placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized trial, PSF patients were randomized in blocks to placebo or study drug. Primary and secondary outcome measures were return to normal bowel function, including time to passage of flatus and stool, time to tolerance of oral nutrition, and time to hospital discharge. Patients were included regardless of chronic opioid consumption status.

RESULTS

Thirty-one patients provided consent for participation, and 26 patients (13 per group) completed the study. There were no differences between groups with respect to time to flatus, time to bowel movement, time to oral nutrition tolerance, and time to discharge. Calculated effect sizes favored placebo for all interventions.

CONCLUSIONS

Alvimopan did not hasten return to bowel function for any primary or secondary outcome measures when compared with placebo for patients undergoing PSF. There were no adverse events related to alvimopan, including for patients with chronic opioid consumption. While underpowered to determine a statistical difference, it is unlikely that a clinically relevant effect exists.

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David B. Bumpass, Lawrence G. Lenke, Jeffrey L. Gum, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith, Christopher P. Ames, Shay Bess, Brian J. Neuman, Eric Klineberg, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Han Jo Kim, Douglas C. Burton, Khaled M. Kebaish, Richard Hostin, Renaud Lafage, Michael P. Kelly, and for the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

Adolescent spine deformity studies have shown that male patients require longer surgery and have greater estimated blood loss (EBL) and complications compared with female patients. No studies exist to support this relationship in adult spinal deformity (ASD). The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between sex and complications, deformity correction, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with ASD. It was hypothesized that male ASD patients would have greater EBL, longer surgery, and more complications than female ASD patients.

METHODS

A multicenter ASD cohort was retrospectively queried for patients who underwent primary posterior-only instrumented fusions with a minimum of 5 levels fused. The minimum follow-up was 2 years. Primary outcomes were EBL, operative time, intra-, peri-, and postoperative complications, radiographic correction, and HRQOL outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index, SF-36, and Scoliosis Research Society-22r Questionnaire). Poisson multivariate regression was used to control for age, comorbidities, and levels fused.

RESULTS

Ninety male and 319 female patients met the inclusion criteria. Male patients had significantly greater mean EBL (2373 ml vs 1829 ml, p = 0.01). The mean operative time, transfusion requirements, and final radiographic measurements did not differ between sexes. Similarly, changes in HRQOL showed no significant differences. Finally, there were no sex differences in the incidence of complications (total, major, or minor) at any time point after controlling for age, body mass index, comorbidities, and levels fused.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite higher EBL, male ASD patients did not experience more complications or require less deformity correction at the 2-year follow-up. HRQOL scores similarly showed no sex differences. These findings differ from adolescent deformity studies, and surgeons can counsel patients that sex is unlikely to influence the outcomes and complication rates of primary all-posterior ASD surgery.