Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Darin Dougherty x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Sameer A. Sheth, Jonathan Neal, Frances Tangherlini, Matthew K. Mian, Andre Gentil, G. Rees Cosgrove, Emad N. Eskandar and Darin D. Dougherty

Object

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and disabling psychiatric illness, and in a significant proportion of patients with OCD the disease is refractory to conventional pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. For more than half a century, patients with severe, treatment-resistant OCD have been treated with stereotactic limbic system lesions, including dorsal anterior cingulotomy. The authors present their results describing the efficacy and durability of limbic system surgery for OCD, characterizing a large cohort of patients treated at a single institution with a mean follow-up of more than 5 years.

Methods

The authors identified 64 consecutive patients undergoing cingulotomy for refractory OCD at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1989 and 2009. Changes in OCD and major depressive disorder symptom severity were assessed at both the initial and most recent postoperative follow-up by using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Full and partial OCD symptom responses were defined as Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score reductions of ≥ 35% and 25%–34%, respectively.

Results

Regarding OCD symptom improvement, at the first postoperative follow-up (mean 10.7 months), 35% of patients demonstrated a full response and 7% were partial responders. Thirty patients had a subsequent procedure (repeat cingulotomy or subcaudate tractotomy). By the most recent follow-up (mean 63.8 months), rates climbed to 47% and 22% for full and partial responses, respectively. Of the 24 patients with at least a partial response at initial follow-up, 20 (83%) retained at least a partial response at final follow-up. Comorbid major depressive disorder severity decreased by 17% at the most recent follow-up.

Conclusions

Limbic system surgery based on initial cingulotomy offers a durable and effective treatment option for appropriately selected patients with severe OCD who have not responded to conventional pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy.

Free access

Vengalathur Ganesan Ramesh and Chandramouli Balasubramanian

Full access

Jimmy C. Yang, Daniel T. Ginat, Darin D. Dougherty, Nikos Makris and Emad N. Eskandar

Object

Cingulotomy and limbic leucotomy are lesioning surgeries with demonstrated benefit for medically intractable psychiatric illnesses. They represent significant refinements of the prefrontal lobotomy used from the 1930s through the 1950s. However, the associations between anatomical characterization of these lesions and outcome data are not well understood. To elucidate these procedures and associations, the authors sought to define and compare the neuroanatomy of cingulotomy and limbic leucotomy and to test a method that uses neuroanatomical data and voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping (VLSM) to reveal potential refinements to modern psychiatric neurosurgical procedures.

Methods

T1-weighted MR images of patients who had undergone cingulotomy and limbic leucotomy were segmented and registered onto the Montreal Neurological Institute T1-weighted template brain MNI152. Using an atlas-based approach, the authors calculated, by case, the percentage of each anatomical structure affected by the lesion. Because of the infrequency of modern lesion procedures and the requirement for higher-resolution clinical imaging, the sample size was small.

The pilot study correlated cingulotomy and limbic leucotomy lesion characteristics with clinical outcomes for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. For this study, preoperative and postoperative Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale scores for 11 cingulotomy patients and 8 limbic leucotomy patients were obtained, and lesion masks were defined and compared anatomically by using an atlas-based method. Statistically significant voxels were additionally calculated by using VLSM techniques that correlated lesion characteristics with postoperative scores.

Results

Mean lesion volumes were 13.3 ml for cingulotomy and 11.8 ml for limbic leucotomy. As expected, cingulotomy was isolated to the anterior cingulum. The subcaudate tractotomy portion of limbic leucotomy additionally affected Brodmann area 25, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens.

Initial results indicated that the dorsolateral regions of the cingulotomy lesion and the posteroventral regions of the subcaudate tractotomy lesion were associated with improved postoperative Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale scores.

Conclusions

Cingulotomy and limbic leucotomy are lesioning surgeries that target pathological circuits implicated in psychiatric disease. Lesion analysis and VLSM contextualize outcome data and have the potential to be useful for improving lesioning neurosurgical procedures.

Restricted access

Darin D. Dougherty, Anthony P. Weiss, G. Rees Cosgrove, Nathaniel M. Alpert, Edwin H. Cassem, Andrew A. Nierenberg, Bruce H. Price, Helen S. Mayberg, Alan J. Fischman and Scott L. Rauch

Object. Neurosurgical procedures are a viable intervention for severe, treatment-refractory major depression, although they have been associated with only modest rates of efficacy. The purpose of this study was to identify possible neuroimaging predictors of treatment response to anterior cingulotomy in patients with major depression.

Methods. Thirteen patients underwent stereotactic anterior cingulotomy for treatment-refractory major depression. Symptom severity was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) both before and approximately 12 months after surgery. The authors performed [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose—positron emission tomography (PET) studies in all patients preoperatively. Statistical parametric mapping methods were used to test for loci of significant correlation between preoperative regional cerebral metabolism and postoperative reduction in BDI scores.

The mean (± standard deviation) change in the BDI score from the preoperative period (43.7 ± 7.8) to the postoperative period (30.5 ± 21.3) was 33.1 ± 45.4%. Two loci—the left subgenual prefrontal cortex and left thalamus—were identified as sites at which preoperative metabolism was significantly correlated with subsequent improvement in depressive symptom severity following cingulotomy. Specifically, higher preoperative rates of metabolism at these loci were associated with better postoperative results.

Conclusions. Possible PET scanning predictors of treatment response were identified in patients with major depression who had undergone anterior cingulotomy. Further research will be necessary to determine the reproducibility of this finding. If confirmed, the availability of an index for noninvasively predicting a patient's response to cingulotomy for the treatment of major depression would be of great clinical value.

Restricted access

Darin D. Dougherty, Tina Chou, Andrew K. Corse, Amanda R. Arulpragasam, Alik S. Widge, Cristina Cusin, Karleyton C. Evans, Benjamin D. Greenberg, Suzanne N. Haber and Thilo Deckersbach

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a reversible, nonlesion-based treatment for patients with intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The first studies on DBS for OCD stimulating the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) yielded encouraging results for this neuroanatomical site's therapeutic efficacy. This investigation was conducted to better understand which regions of the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical network were acutely affected by VC/VS DBS for OCD. Furthermore, the objective was to identify which brain regions demonstrated changes in perfusion, as stimulation was applied across a dorsoventral lead axis that corresponded to different anatomical locations in the VC/VS.

METHODS

Six patients receiving VC/VS DBS for OCD underwent oxygen-15 positron emission tomography (15O-PET) scanning. Monopolar DBS was delivered at each of the 4 different electrodes on the stimulating lead in the VC/VS. The data were analyzed using SPM5. Paired t-tests were run in SPSS to identify significant changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between stimulation conditions. Pearson's r correlations were run between these significant changes in rCBF and changes in OCD and depressive symptom severity.

RESULTS

Perfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) significantly increased when monopolar DBS was turned on at the most ventral DBS contact, and this increase in dACC activity was correlated with reductions in depressive symptom severity (r(5) = −0.994, p = 0.001). Perfusion in the thalamus, striatum, and globus pallidus significantly increased when DBS was turned on at the most dorsal contact.

CONCLUSIONS

DBS of the VC/VS appears to modulate activity in the regions implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD. Different regions in the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuit showed increased perfusion based on whether the stimulation was more ventral or dorsal along the lead axis in the VC/VS. Evidence was found that DBS at the most ventral site was associated with clinical changes in depressive symptom severity, but not OCD symptom severity.

Restricted access

Scott L. Rauch, Darin D. Dougherty, Donald Malone, Ali Rezai, Gerhard Friehs, Alan J. Fischman, Nathaniel M. Alpert, Suzanne N. Haber, Paul H. Stypulkowski, Mark T. Rise, Steven A. Rasmussen and Benjamin D. Greenberg

Object

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral [anterior internal] capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) is under investigation as an alternative to anterior capsulotomy for severe obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). In neuroimaging studies of patients with OCD, dysfunction in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and thalamus has been identified; and modulation of activity in this circuit has been observed following successful nonsurgical treatment. The purpose of the current study was to test hypotheses regarding changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during acute DBS at the VC/VS target in patients with OCD who were participating in a clinical DBS trial.

Methods

Six patients enrolled in a DBS trial for OCD underwent positron emission tomography to measure rCBF; the rCBF measured during acute DBS at high frequency was then compared with those measured during DBS at low frequency and off (control) conditions. On the basis of neuroanatomical knowledge about the VC/VS and neuroimaging data on OCD, the authors predicted that acute DBS at this target would result in modulation of activity within the implicated frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic circuit. Data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping.

In a comparison of acute high-frequency DBS with control conditions, the authors found significant activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus.

Conclusions

Acute DBS at the VC/VS target is associated with activation of the circuitry implicated in OCD. Further studies will be necessary to replicate these findings and to determine the neural effects associated with chronic VC/VS DBS. Moreover, additional data are needed to investigate whether pretreatment imaging profiles can be used to predict a patient’s subsequent clinical response to chronic DBS.

Full access

Andre F. Gentil, Antonio C. Lopes, Darin D. Dougherty, Christian Rück, David Mataix-Cols, Teagan L. Lukacs, Miguel M. Canteras, Emad N. Eskandar, K. Johan Larsson, Marcelo Q. Hoexter, Marcelo C. Batistuzzo, Benjamin D. Greenberg and Euripedes C. Miguel

Object

Recent findings have suggested a correlation between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom dimensions and clinical outcome after limbic system surgery for treatment-refractory patients. Based on previous evidence that the hoarding dimension is associated with worse outcome in conventional treatments, and may have a neural substrate distinct from OCD, the authors examined a large sample of patients undergoing limbic surgery (40 with capsulotomy, 37 with cingulotomy) and investigated if symptom dimensions, in particular hoarding, could influence treatment outcome.

Methods

Data from 77 patients from 3 different research centers at São Paulo (n = 17), Boston (n = 37), and Stockholm (n = 23) were analyzed. Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; São Paulo) or Y-BOCS Symptom Checklist scores (Boston and Stockholm) were used to code the presence of 4 well-established symptom dimensions: forbidden thoughts, contamination/cleaning, symmetry/order, and hoarding. Reductions in YBOCS scores determined clinical outcome.

Results

Mean Y-BOCS scores decreased 34.2% after surgery (95% CI 27.2%–41.3%), with a mean follow-up of 68.1 months. Patients with hoarding symptoms had a worse response to treatment (mean Y-BOCS decrease of 22.7% ± 25.9% vs 41.6% ± 32.2%, respectively; p = 0.006), with no significant effect of surgical modality (capsulotomy vs cingulotomy). Patients with forbidden thoughts apparently also had a worse response to treatment, but this effect was dependent upon the co-occurrence of the hoarding dimension. Only the negative influence of the hoarding dimension remained when an ANOVA model was performed, which also controlled for preoperative symptom severity.

Conclusions

The presence of hoarding symptoms prior to surgery was associated with worse clinical outcome after the interventions. Patients with OCD under consideration for ablative surgery should be carefully screened for hoarding symptoms or comorbid hoarding disorder. For these patients, the potentially reduced benefits of surgery need to be carefully considered against potential risks.

Restricted access

Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010