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Jonathan E. Hodes, Armand Aymard, Y. Pierre Gobin, Daniel Rüfenacht, Siegfried Bien, Daniel Reizine, André Gaston, and Jean Jacques Merland

✓ Among 121 intracerebral aneurysms presenting at one institution between 1984 and 1989, 16 were treated by endovascular means. All 16 lesions were intradural and intracranial, and had failed either surgical or endovascular attempts at selective exclusion with parent vessel preservation. The lesions included four giant middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms, one giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm, six giant posterior cerebral artery aneurysms, one posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm, one giant mid-basilar artery aneurysm, two giant fusiform basilar artery aneurysms, and one dissecting vertebral artery aneurysm. One of the 16 patients failed an MCA test occlusion and was approached surgically after attempted endovascular selective occlusion. Treatment involved pretreatment evaluation of cerebral blood flow followed by a preliminary parent vessel test occlusion under neuroleptic analgesia with vigilant neurological monitoring. If the test occlusion was tolerated, it was immediately followed by permanent occlusion of the parent vessel with either detachable or nondetachable balloon or coils.

The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 8 years. Excellent outcomes were obtained in 12 cases with complete angiographic obliteration of the aneurysm and no new neurological deficits and/or improvement of the pre-embolization symptoms. Four patients died: two related to the procedure, one secondary to rupture of another untreated aneurysm, and the fourth from a postoperative MCA thrombosis after having failed endovascular test occlusion. The angiographic, clinical, and cerebral blood flow criteria for occlusion tolerance are discussed.

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Armand Aymard, Y. Pierre Gobin, Jonathan E. Hodes, Siegfried Bien, Daniel Rüfenacht, Daniel Reizine, Bernard George, and Jean J. Merland

✓ Twenty-one patients with aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar circulation underwent unilateral or bilateral endovascular occlusion of the vertebral artery. Six patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 10 with mass effect, four with mass effect and SAH, and one with ischemic symptoms. Thirteen patients had good outcomes with complete clinical and angiographic cure. Six patients had partial thrombosis of their aneurysms. There was one death and one treatment failure. One patient suffered transient stroke. It is concluded that endovascular occlusion of the vertebral artery following test occlusion is a safe and effective treatment for proximal aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar circulation.

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Y. Pierre Gobin, Andre Rogopoulos, Armand Aymard, Mazen Khayata, Daniel Reizine, Jacques Chiras, and Jean-Jacques Merland

✓ Intracranial dural arteriovenous (AV) fistulas with spinal perimedullary venous drainage are rare lesions that have distinctive clinical, radiological, and therapeutic aspects. Five patients presented with an ascending myelopathy, which extended to involve the brain stem in three cases. Myelography and magnetic resonance imaging showed slightly dilated spinal perimedullary vessels. Spinal angiograms were normal in the arterial phase. Diagnosis was only possible after cerebral angiography, which demonstrated posterior fossa AV fistulas fed by meningeal arteries and draining into spinal perimedullary veins. Endovascular treatment alone resulted in angiographic obliteration of the lesion in three patients. Two patients required surgery in addition to endovascular therapy. One patient died postoperatively, and in one a transient complication of embolization was observed. Improvement after treatment was good in two cases and fair in two. Transverse sinus thrombosis was observed in three cases and was probably the cause of the aberrant venous drainage of the fistula into the spinal perimedullary veins. The pathophysiology is related to spinal cord venous hypertension. These lesions were classified as Type 5 in the Djindjian and Merland classification of dural intracranial AV fistulas. Endovascular therapy is a safe effective method in the treatment of these fistulas and should be tried first.