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Daniel M. S. Raper, Nasser Mohammed, M. Yashar S. Kalani and Min S. Park

The preferred method for treating complex dural arteriovenous fistulae of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses is via endovascular, transarterial embolization using liquid embolysate. However, this treatment approach mandates access to distal dural feeding arteries that can be technically challenging by standard endovascular approaches. This video describes a left temporal craniotomy for direct stick microcatheterization of an endovascularly inaccessible distal posterior division of the middle meningeal artery for embolization of a complex left temporal dural arteriovenous fistula. The case was performed in the hybrid operative suite with biplane intraoperative angiography. Technical considerations, operative nuances, and outcomes are reviewed.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Dnd4yHgaKcQ.

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Ricardo J. Komotar, Daniel M. S. Raper, Robert M. Starke, J. Bryan Iorgulescu and Philip H. Gutin

Object

Meningiomas are one of the more common intracranial neoplasms. The risk of seizures and secondary aspiration, brain edema, and brain injury often leads practitioners to administer prophylactic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) perioperatively. The efficacy of this practice remains controversial, however, with prior investigations reaching conflicting results and recent studies focusing on AED side effects. The authors performed a systematic analysis of outcomes following supratentorial meningioma resection with and without prophylactic AED administration in the hope of clarifying the role of AEDs in the perioperative care of patients with these lesions.

Methods

A MEDLINE search of the literature (1979–2010) was performed. Comparisons were made for patient and tumor characteristics as well as success of repair, morbidity, and seizure outcome. Statistical analyses of categorical variables were undertaken using chi-square and Fisher exact tests.

Results

Nineteen studies, involving 698 patients, were included. There were no significant differences in the extent of resection, perioperative mortality, or recurrence between the AED and no-AED cohorts. Likewise, there were no significant differences in the incidence of early or late seizures between the cohorts.

Conclusions

The results of this systematic analysis supports the conclusion that the prophylactic administration of anticonvulsants during resection of supratentorial meningiomas provides no benefit in the prevention of either early or late postoperative seizures. Despite their traditional role in this patient population, the routine use of AEDs should be carefully reconsidered.

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Ashish H. Shah, Karthik Madhavan, Deborah Heros, Daniel M. S. Raper, J. Bryan Iorgulescu, Brian E. Lally and Ricardo J. Komotar

Object

The discovery of incidental low-grade gliomas (LGGs) on MR imaging is rare, and currently there is no existing protocol for management of these lesions. Various studies have approached the dilemma of managing patients with incidental LGGs. While some advocate surgery and radiotherapy, others reserve surgery until there is radiological evidence of growth. For neurosurgeons and radiologists, determining the course of action after routine brain imaging poses not only a medical but also an ethical dilemma. The authors conducted a systematic review of case reports and case series in hopes of enhancing the current understanding of the management options for these rare lesions.

Methods

A PubMed search was performed to include all relevant MR imaging studies in which management of suspected incidental LGG was reported. Comparisons were made between the surgical treatment arm and the active surveillance arm in terms of outcome, mode of discovery, reasons for treatment, and histology.

Results

Nine studies with 72 patients were included in this study (56 in the surgical arm and 16 in the active surveillance arm). Within the surgical arm, 49% remained deficit free after treatment, 25% showed evidence of tumor progression, 13% underwent a second treatment, and 7% died. The active surveillance group resulted in no unanticipated adverse events, with serial imaging revealing no tumor growth in all cases. Lesion regression was reported in 31% of this group. The surgical arm's mortality rate was 7% compared with 0% in the active surveillance arm.

Conclusions

Treatment decisions for incidental LGG should be individualized based on presenting symptoms and radiological evidence of growth. The asymptomatic patient may be monitored safely with serial MR imaging and occasionally PET scanning before treatment is initiated. In patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms or concurrent symptomatic lesions, treatment may be initiated earlier to reduce potential morbidity. All treatment decisions must be tempered by patient factors and expectations of anticipated benefit.

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Kunal S. Patel, Ricardo J. Komotar, Oszkar Szentirmai, Nelson Moussazadeh, Daniel M. Raper, Robert M. Starke, Vijay K. Anand and Theodore H. Schwartz

Object

Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is expanding in acceptance, yet postoperative CSF leak rates remain a concern. This study presents the Cornell closure protocol, which has yielded significantly lower postoperative CSF leak rates compared with prior reports, as an algorithm that can be used by centers having difficulty with CSF leak.

Methods

A single closure algorithm for endoscopic surgery has been used since January 2010 at Weill Cornell Medical College. A prospective database noting intraoperative CSF leak, closure technique, and postoperative CSF leak was reviewed. The authors used a MEDLINE search to identify similar studies and compared CSF leak rates to those of patients treated using the Cornell algorithm.

Results

The retrospective study of a prospectively acquired database included 209 consecutive patients. In 84 patients (40%) there was no intraoperative CSF leak and no postoperative CSF leak. In the 125 patients (60%) with an intraoperative CSF leak, 35 of them with high-flow leaks, there were 0 (0%) postoperative CSF leaks.

Conclusions

It is possible to achieve a CSF leak rate of 0% by using this closure protocol. With proper experience, endoscopic skull base surgery should not be considered to have a higher CSF leak rate than open transcranial or microscopic transsphenoidal surgery.

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Thomas J. Buell, Daniel M. S. Raper, I. Jonathan Pomeraniec, Dale Ding, Ching-Jen Chen, Davis G. Taylor and Kenneth C. Liu

Stenosis of the transverse sinus (TS) and sigmoid sinus (SS), with a trans-stenosis pressure gradient, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). MRI has shown improvement in TS and SS stenosis after high-volume lumbar puncture (HVLP) in a subset of patients with IIH. The authors present the first report of an IIH patient with immediate post-HVLP TS and SS trans-stenosis pressure gradient reduction and an attendant increase in TS and SS cross-sectional area confirmed using intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS). Recurrence of the patient’s TS-SS stenosis coincided with elevated HVLP opening pressure, and venous sinus stent placement resulted in clinical improvement. This report suggests that TS and SS stenosis may be a downstream effect of elevated intracranial pressure in IIH, rather than its principal etiological mechanism. However, the authors hypothesize that endovascular stenting may obliterate a positive feedback loop involving trans-stenosis pressure gradients, and still benefit appropriately selected patients.

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Ricardo J. Komotar, J. Bryan Iorgulescu, Daniel M. S. Raper, Eric C. Holland, Kathryn Beal, Mark H. Bilsky, Cameron W. Brennan, Viviane Tabar, Jonathan H. Sherman, Yoshiya Yamada and Philip H. Gutin

Object

Atypical (WHO Grade II) meningiomas comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors, with histopathology delineated under the guidance of the WHO and a spectrum of clinical outcomes. The role of postoperative radiotherapy for patients with atypical meningiomas who have undergone gross-total resection (GTR) remains unclear. In this paper, the authors sought to clarify this role by reviewing their experience over the past 2 decades.

Methods

The authors retrospectively analyzed all patients at their institution who underwent GTR between 1992 and 2011 with a final histology demonstrating atypical meningioma. Information regarding patients, tumor characteristics, and postoperative adjuvant therapy was gleaned from medical records. Time to recurrence and overall survival were analyzed using univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses.

Results

Forty-five patients who met the inclusion criteria underwent GTR for atypical meningiomas. By a median follow-up of 44.1 months, 22% of atypical meningiomas had recurred. There was no recurrence in 12 (92%) of 13 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy or in 19 (59%) of 32 patients who did not undergo postoperative radiotherapy (p = 0.085), demonstrating a strong trend toward improved local control with postoperative radiotherapy. No other factors were significantly associated with recurrence in univariate or multivariate analyses.

Conclusions

This retrospective series supports the observation that postoperative radiotherapy likely results in lower recurrence rates of gross totally resected atypical meningiomas. Although a multicenter prospective trial will ultimately be needed to fully define the role of radiotherapy in managing gross totally resected atypical meningiomas, the authors' results contribute to a growing number of series that support routine postoperative radiotherapy as an adjuvant treatment for these lesions.

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Ashish H. Shah, Neal Patel, Daniel M. S. Raper, Amade Bregy, Ramsey Ashour, Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan, Jacques J. Morcos, Roberto C. Heros and Ricardo J. Komotar

Object

As endovascular techniques have become more advanced, preoperative embolization has become an increasingly used intervention in the management of meningiomas. To date, however, no consensus has been reached on the use of this technique. To clarify the role of preoperative embolization in the management of meningiomas, the authors conducted a systematic review of case reports, case series, and prospective studies to increase the current understanding of the management options for these common lesions and complications associated with preoperative embolization.

Methods

A PubMed search was performed to include all relevant studies in which the management of intracranial meningiomas with preoperative embolization was reported. Immediate complications of embolization were reported as major (sustained) or minor (transient) deficits, death, or no neurological deficits.

Results

A total of 36 studies comprising 459 patients were included in the review. Among patients receiving preoperative embolization for meningiomas, 4.6% (n = 21) sustained complications as a direct result of embolization. Of the 21 patients with embolization-induced complications, the incidence of major complications was 4.8% (n = 1) and the mortality rate was 9.5% (n = 2).

Conclusions

Preoperative embolization is associated with an added risk for morbidity and mortality. Preoperative embolization may be associated with significant complications, but careful selection of ideal cases for embolization may help reduce any added morbidity with this procedure. Although not analyzed in the authors' study, embolization may still reduce rates of surgical morbidity and mortality and therefore may still have a potential benefit for selected patients. Future prospective studies involving the use of preoperative embolization in certain cases of meningiomas may further elucidate its potential benefit and risks.

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Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell, Daniel M. S. Raper, Min S. Park, M. Yashar Kalani, Natasha Ironside, Robert F. James and Dale Ding