Lumbosacropelvic pseudarthrosis after long spinal fusions for treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis remains a challenging condition. Moreover, although pelvic fixation with iliac screws is widely used in deformity surgery to provide a biomechanically strong distal anchor for long thoracolumbar constructs, there are very few options available after failed pelvic fixation with iliac screws. The authors conducted a retrospective review of the surgical charts and imaging findings of patients subjected to revision surgery for lumbosacropelvic pseudarthrosis from August 2011 to August 2012. This review identified 5 patients in whom a salvage technique combining both S-1 and S-2 sacral alar-iliac (SAI) screws had been performed. In this technical note, the authors present a detailed anatomical discussion and an appraisal of the sequential intraoperative steps of this new technique involving a combination of S-1 and S-2 SAI screws. The discussion is illustrated with a surgical case in which this technique was used to treat a patient with pseudarthrosis that had developed after fixation with classic iliac screws. In conclusion, although S-2 SAI screws have previously been reported as an interesting alternative to classic iliac wing screws, this report is the first on the use of combined S-1 and S-2 SAI screws for pelvic fixation as a salvage technique for lumbosacropelvic instability. According to the reported experience, this technique provides a biomechanically robust construct for definitive pelvic fixation during revision surgeries in the challenging scenarios of pseudarthrosis and instability of the lumbosacropelvic region.
Tobias A. Mattei and Daniel R. Fassett
Daniel R. Fassett and Meic H. Schmidt
The goal of this study was to review the management of intra- and extradural ependymomas. Spinal ependymomas most commonly occur as intramedullary tumors throughout the spinal axis. In the lumbosacral region, ependymomas are most commonly associated with the conus medullaris and cauda equina, but can also occur extradurally in the sacrum, presacral tissues, or subcutaneous tissues over the sacrum. These two tumor locations produce different management concerns. Intradural ependymomas, especially those in the lumbosacral region, are now recognized for their potential to spread throughout the central nervous system (CNS), whereas extradural tumors elicit more concern for their association with extraneural metastases.
The authors have reviewed the literature regarding both of these distinct tumors and have summarized recommendations for the management of intra- and extradural lumbosacral ependymomas. For both tumors, it appears that gross-total resection is the treatment of choice when feasible. The role of radiation therapy has not been adequately studied for either tumor location, but most clinicians use this modality in patients with subtotal resection of intradural ependymomas, local recurrence, or CNS dissemination. Data supporting the use of radiation therapy for extradural ependymomas are lacking. There does not appear to be a significant role for chemotherapy in either tumor location.
Despite the risk for local recurrence and CNS dissemination, the prognosis for intradural lumbosacral ependymomas is good, with a greater than 90% 10-year patient survival in most series. The prognosis for extradural ependymomas does not appear to be as good. Much depends on extradural tumor location, however; the outlook is better for dorsal sacral tumors than presacral tumors.
Report of five cases and review of the literature
Daniel R. Fassett, James Pingree, and John R. W. Kestle
P Myxopapillary ependymomas (MPEs) have historically been thought to be benign tumors occurring most frequently in adults. Only 8 to 20% of these tumors occur in the first two decades of life, making this tumor a rarity in pediatric neurosurgery. Five patients with intraspinal MPEs were treated by the authors between 1992 and 2003. Four (80%) of these five patients suffered from disseminated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) at the time of presentation; this incidence is much higher than that reported in the combined adult and pediatric literature.
Combining five pediatric case series reported in the literature with the present series, the authors review a total of 26 cases of pediatric patients with intraspinal MPEs. In nine cases (35%) CNS metastases occurred. In those cases in which patients underwent screening for CNS tumor dissemination, however, the incidence of disseminated disease was 58% (seven of 12 patients).
In pediatric patients MPEs may spread throughout the CNS via cerebrospinal fluid pathways; therefore, MR imaging of the entire CNS axis is recommended at both presentation and follow-up review to detect tumor dissemination.
Daniel R. Fassett and Meic H. Schmidt
Spinal epidural lipomatosis is most commonly observed in patients receiving long-term exogenous steroid therapy, but can also be seen in patients with endogenous steroid overproduction, obesity, or idiopathic disease. With this condition, there is hypertrophy of the epidural adipose tissue, causing a narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of neural structures. A majority of patients will present with progressive myelopathy, but radicular symptoms are also common. Conservative treatment—weaning from steroids or weight loss—can reverse the hypertrophy of the adipose tissue and relieve the neural compression. If conservative management fails, surgery with decompressive laminectomy is also very successful at improving the patient's neurological symptoms.
Daniel R. Fassett and William T. Couldwell
Only 1% of all pituitary surgeries are performed to treat tumors that have metastasized to the pituitary gland; however, in certain cases of malignant neoplasms pituitary metastases do occur. Breast and lung cancers are the most common diseases that metastasize to the pituitary. Breast cancer metastasizes to the pituitary especially frequently, with reported rates ranging between 6 and 8% of cases.
Most pituitary metastases are asymptomatic, with only 7% reported to be symptomatic. Diabetes insipidus, anterior pituitary dysfunction, visual field defects, headache/pain, and ophthalmoplegia are the most commonly reported symptoms. Diabetes insipidus is especially common in this population, occurring in between 29 and 71% of patients who experience symptoms.
Differentiation of pituitary metastasis from other pituitary tumors based on neuroimaging alone can be difficult, although certain features, such as thickening of the pituitary stalk, invasion of the cavernous sinus, and sclerosis of the surrounding sella turcica, can indicate metastasis to the pituitary gland. Overall, neurohypophysial involvement seems to be most prevalent, but breast metastases appear to have an affinity for the adenohypophysis. Differentiating metastasis to the pituitary gland from bone metastasis to the skull base, which invades the sella turcica, can also be difficult. In metastasis to the pituitary gland, surrounding sclerosis in the sella turcica is usually minimal compared with metastasis to the skull base.
Treatment for these tumors is often multimodal and includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Tumor invasiveness can make resection difficult. Although surgical series have not shown any significant survival benefits given by tumor resection, the patient's quality of life may be improved. Survival among these patients is poor with mean survival rates reported to range between 6 and 22 months.
Tobias A. Mattei and Daniel R. Fassett
Daniel R. Fassett, Peter E. Schloesser, and William T. Couldwell
✓ The authors describe a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage from moyamoya-like vessels associated with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a 44-year-old Hispanic man who presented with severe headache. The AVM was located in the left parietal lobe and the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery was occluded. Although the patient was initially neurologically intact, he began to experience neurological deficits from mild vasospasm, illustrating the sensitivity of the underperfused portion of brain surrounding an AVM. His neurological deficits improved with aggressive hydration and elevated blood pressure. After a 3-week period, the AVM was resected without complication and all of the patient's neurological deficits resolved. The authors review radiographic findings of this unique case.
Virany Huynh Hillard, Daniel R. Fassett, Michael A. Finn, and Ronald I. Apfelbaum
An iliac crest autograft is the gold standard for bone grafting in posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis but can be associated with significant donor-site morbidity. Conversely, an allograft has historically performed suboptimally for atlantoaxial arthrodesis as an onlay graft. The authors have modified a bone grafting technique to allow placement of a bicortical iliac crest allograft in an interpositional manner, and they evaluated it as an alternative to an autograft in posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis.
The records of 89 consecutive patients in whom C1–2 arthrodesis was performed between 2001 and 2005 were reviewed.
Forty-seven patients underwent 48 atlantoaxial arthrodeses with an allograft (mean follow-up 16.1 months, range 0–49 months), and 42 patients underwent autograft bone grafting (mean follow-up 17.6 months, range 0–61.0 months). The operative time was 50 minutes shorter in the allograft (mean 184 minutes, range 106–328 minutes) than in the autograft procedure (mean 234 minutes, range 154–358 minutes), and the estimated blood loss was 50% lower in the allograft group than in the autograft group (mean 103 ml [range 30–200 ml] vs mean 206 ml [range 50–400 ml], respectively). Bone incorporation was initially slower in the allograft than in the autograft group but equalized by 12 months postprocedure. The respective fusion rates after 24 months were 96.7 and 88.9% for autografts and allografts. Complications at the donor site occurred in 16.7% of the autograft patients, including 1 pelvic fracture, 1 retained sponge, 1 infection, 2 hernias requiring repair, 2 hematomas, and persistent pain.
The authors describe a technique for interpositional bone grafting between C-1 and C-2 that allows for the use of an allograft with excellent fusion results. This technique reduced the operative time and blood loss and eliminated donor-site morbidity.
Daniel R. Fassett, Todd McCall, and Douglas L. Brockmeyer
Odontoid synchondrosis fractures, although rare in the overall incidence of spinal trauma, are one of the more common fractures in young children. The goal of this study was to evaluate the demographic data, incidence of neurological deficits, treatment strategies, and outcomes in a combined series of odontoid synchondrosis fractures treated at the authors' institution and reported in other series.
In a retrospective chart review, the authors identified four odontoid synchondrosis fractures treated at their hospital since January 2000; these were combined with cases reported in six other series in the literature, yielding a total of 55 patients. Data regarding the patients' age, sex, delayed diagnosis, odontoid displacement, neurological deficits, treatment, and fusion status were collected.
The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 7 years (mean 2.8 years), with neither sex predominating. Diagnosis was delayed in eight cases. The orientation of the odontoid fracture was reported for 36 patients, with 94% experiencing anterior displacement. Spinal cord injury (SCI) was noted in 15 patients, including 11 with complete injuries and eight with SCI at the cervicothoracic junction. Forty-two (93%) of 45 patients with fractures initially treated with external immobilization attained fusion. Eight patients were treated with surgery; four initially, with no attempt at conservative therapy, three after failed halo immobilization, and one after nonunion because of delayed diagnosis.
Odontoid synchondrosis fractures can be difficult to diagnose. In children younger than 7 years of age who present with neck pain or neurological deficits attributable to SCI, this fracture should be suspected. Given the high rate of fusion attained with conservative therapy, it is recommended for most synchondrosis fractures, although surgery may be warranted for individual cases.
Daniel R. Fassett, James S. Harrop, and Alexander R. Vaccaro
✓The authors describe a rare case of Brown–Séquard syndrome as a result of indirect, concussive trauma to the spinal cord from a gunshot wound (GSW) and present the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging evidence obtained in this interesting case. The patient was shot in the anterior neck and the bullet passed through the lateral aspect of the C-7 lateral mass and transverse process. Bone fragments from the lateral aspect of C-7 were displaced posteriorly into the soft tissues, but no abnormalities were noted within the spinal canal except for high-intensity signal on T2-weighted MR imaging within the right side of the spinal cord. This is the first reported case to provide MR imaging evidence of a Brown–Séquard spinal cord injury as a result of indirect trauma (concussive injury) from a GSW.