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Daniel C. Kreatsoulas, Varun S. Shah, Bradley A. Otto, Ricardo L. Carrau, Daniel M. Prevedello, and Douglas A. Hardesty

OBJECTIVE

Spontaneous CSF leaks are rare, their diagnosis is often delayed, and they can precipitate meningitis. Craniotomy is the historical “gold standard” repair for these leaks. An endonasal endoscopic approach (EEA) offers potentially less invasiveness and lower surgical morbidity than a traditional craniotomy but must yield the same surgical success. A paucity of data exists studying EEA as the primary management for spontaneous CSF leaks.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea repair at their institution from July 2010 to August 2018. Standardized management includes EEA as first-line treatment, and lumbar puncture (LP) performed 24–48 hours postoperatively. If opening pressure on LP is elevated, CSF diversion or acetazolamide therapy is used as needed. Perioperative lumbar drains are not used.

RESULTS

Of 46 patients identified, the most common CSF rhinorrhea etiology was encephalocele (28/46, 60.9%), and the most common location was cribriform/ethmoid (26/46, 56.5%). Forty-three patients underwent EEA alone, and 3 underwent a simultaneous EEA/craniotomy. The most common repair strategy was nasoseptal or other pedicled flaps (18/46, 39.1%). Postoperatively, 15 patients (32.6%) received CSF diversion due to elevated ICP, with BMI > 40 kg/m2 being a significant risk factor (odds ratio 4.35, p = 0.033) for postrepair shunt placement. Twelve patients received acetazolamide therapy for treatment of mildly elevated pressures. The average opening pressure of the shunted group was 36 cm H2O and the average for the acetazolamide-only group was 26 cm H2O. Two patients underwent CSF leak repair revision, one because of progressive fungal sinusitis and the other because of recurrent CSF leak. The mean follow-up duration was 15 months.

CONCLUSIONS

The paradigm of EEA repair of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea with postoperative LP to identify undiagnosed idiopathic intracranial hypertension appears to be safe and effective. In the authors’ cohort, morbid obesity was statistically associated with the need for postoperative CSF diversion. This has implications for future surgical treatment as obesity levels continue to rise worldwide.

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Krystof S. Bankiewicz, Tomasz Pasterski, Daniel Kreatsoulas, Jakub Onikijuk, Krzysztof Mozgiel, Vikas Munjal, J. Bradley Elder, Russell R. Lonser, and Mirosław Zabek

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility, accuracy, effectiveness, and safety of an MRI-compatible frameless stereotactic ball-joint guide array (BJGA) as a platform for cannula placement and convection-enhanced delivery (CED).

METHODS

The authors analyzed the clinical and imaging data from consecutive patients with aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency who underwent infusion of adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the AADC gene (AAV2-AADC).

RESULTS

Eleven patients (7 females, 4 males) underwent bilateral MRI-guided BJGA cannula placement and CED of AAV2-AADC (22 brainstem infusions). The mean age at infusion was 10.5 ± 5.2 years (range 4–19 years). MRI allowed for accurate real-time planning, confirmed precise cannula placement after single-pass placement, and permitted on-the-fly adjustment. Overall, the mean bilateral depth to the target was 137.0 ± 5.2 mm (range 124.0–145.5 mm). The mean bilateral depth error was 0.9 ± 0.7 mm (range 0–2.2 mm), and the bilateral radial error was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm (range 0.1–2.3 mm). The bilateral absolute tip error was 1.4 ± 0.8 mm (range 0.4–3.0 mm). Target depth and absolute tip error were not correlated (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, r = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Use of the BJGA is feasible, accurate, effective, and safe for cannula placement, infusion MRI monitoring, and cannula adjustment during CED. The low-profile universal applicability of the BJGA streamlines and facilitates MRI-guided CED.