Patrice Finet, Dang Khoa Nguyen, and Alain Bouthillier
Surgery in the insular region is considered challenging because of its vascular relationships, the proximity of functional structures, and its deep location in the sylvian fissure. The authors report the incidence and consequences of ischemic lesions after operculoinsular corticectomy for refractory epilepsy.
The authors retrospectively reviewed the data of all patients who underwent an insular resection with or without an opercular resection for refractory epilepsy at their center. All patients underwent postoperative MRI, enabling a radiological analysis of the ischemic lesions as a result of the corticectomies. The resections were classified according to the location and extent of the insular corticectomy and the type of operculectomy. Each patient underwent clinical follow-up.
Twenty patients underwent surgery. All patients underwent insular corticectomy with or without an operculectomy. Ischemic lesions were identified in 12 patients (60%). In these patients, 11 ischemic lesions (55%) were related to the insular corticectomy, and 1 was related to the associated periinsular resection. The ischemic lesions associated with the insulectomies were typically located in the corona radiata running from the insula to the periventricular region. Nine patients (45%) developed a postoperative neurological deficit, among whom 6 (67%) had an insular corticectomy–related ischemic lesion. All reported neurological deficits were transient. Five patients (25%) had ischemic lesions without neurological deficit.
Operculoinsular corticectomies are associated with ischemic lesions in approximately 60% of patients. However, given that no patient had a definitive postoperative deficit, these ischemic lesions have few clinical consequences. Therefore, this surgical procedure can be considered reasonably safe for the treatment of refractory epilepsy.
Alain Bouthillier, Alexander G. Weil, Laurence Martineau, Laurent Létourneau-Guillon, and Dang Khoa Nguyen
Patients with refractory epilepsy of operculoinsular origin are often denied potentially effective surgical treatment with operculoinsular cortectomy (also termed operculoinsulectomy) because of feared complications and the paucity of surgical series with a significant number of cases documenting seizure control outcome. The goal of this study was to document seizure control outcome after operculoinsular cortectomy in a group of patients investigated and treated by an epilepsy team with 20 years of experience with this specific technique.
Clinical, imaging, surgical, and seizure control outcome data of all patients who underwent surgery for refractory epilepsy requiring an operculoinsular cortectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Tumors and progressive encephalitis cases were excluded. Descriptive and uni- and multivariate analyses were done to determine seizure control outcome and predictors.
Forty-three patients with 44 operculoinsular cortectomies were studied. Kaplan-Meier estimates of complete seizure freedom (first seizure recurrence excluding auras) for years 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 were 70.2%, 70.2%, 65.0%, and 65.0%, respectively. With patients with more than 1 year of follow-up, seizure control outcome Engel class I was achieved in 76.9% (mean follow-up duration 5.8 years; range 1.25–20 years). With multivariate analysis, unfavorable seizure outcome predictors were frontal lobe–like seizure semiology, shorter duration of epilepsy, and the use of intracranial electrodes for invasive monitoring. Suspected causes of recurrent seizures were sparing of the language cortex part of the focus, subtotal resection of cortical dysplasia/polymicrogyria, bilateral epilepsy, and residual epileptic cortex with normal preoperative MRI studies (insula, frontal lobe, posterior parieto-temporal, orbitofrontal).
The surgical treatment of operculoinsular refractory epilepsy is as effective as epilepsy surgeries in other brain areas. These patients should be referred to centers with appropriate experience. A frontal lobe–like seizure semiology should command more sampling with invasive monitoring. Recordings with intracranial electrodes are not always required if the noninvasive investigation is conclusive. The complete resection of the epileptic zone is crucial to achieve good seizure control outcome.
Alain Bouthillier, Alexander G. Weil, Laurence Martineau, Laurent Létourneau-Guillon, and Dang Khoa Nguyen
Operculoinsular cortectomy (also termed operculoinsulectomy) is increasingly recognized as a therapeutic option for perisylvian refractory epilepsy. However, most neurosurgeons are reluctant to perform the technique because of previously experienced or feared neurological complications. The goal of this study was to quantify the incidence of basic neurological complications (loss of primary nonneuropsychological functions) associated with operculoinsular cortectomies for refractory epilepsy, and to identify factors predicting these complications.
Clinical, imaging, and surgical data of all patients investigated and surgically treated by our team for refractory epilepsy requiring an operculoinsular cortectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with tumors and encephalitis were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was used for uni- and multivariate statistical analyses.
Forty-four operculoinsular cortectomies were performed in 43 patients. Although postoperative neurological deficits were frequent (54.5% of procedures), only 3 procedures were associated with a permanent significant neurological deficit. Out of the 3 permanent deficits, only 1 (2.3%; a sensorimotor hemisyndrome) was related to the technique of operculoinsular cortectomy (injury to a middle cerebral artery branch), while the other 2 (arm hypoesthesia and hemianopia) were attributed to cortical resection beyond the operculoinsular area. With multivariate analysis, a postoperative neurological deficit was associated with preoperative insular hypometabolism on PET scan. Postoperative motor deficit (29.6% of procedures) was correlated with fewer years of neurosurgical experience and frontal operculectomies, but not with corona radiata ischemic lesions. Ischemic lesions in the posterior two-thirds of the corona radiata (40.9% of procedures) were associated with parietal operculectomies, but not with posterior insulectomies.
Operculoinsular cortectomy for refractory epilepsy is a relatively safe therapeutic option but temporary neurological deficits after surgery are frequent. This study highlights the role of frontal/parietal opercula resections in postoperative complications. Corona radiata ischemic lesions are not clearly related to motor deficits. There were no obvious permanent neurological consequences of losing a part of an epileptic insula, including on the dominant side for language. A low complication rate can be achieved if the following conditions are met: 1) microsurgical technique is applied to spare cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery; 2) the resection of an opercula is done only if the opercula is part of the epileptic focus; and 3) the neurosurgeon involved has proper training and experience.
Ramez Malak, Alain Bouthillier, Lionel Carmant, Patrick Cossette, Normand Giard, Jean-Marc Saint-Hilaire, Dong Bach Nguyen, and Dang Khoa Nguyen
The insular region has long been neglected in the investigation and treatment of refractory epilepsy. Surgery in the insular region is rarely performed because of the risk of injury to the opercula, the arteries transiting on the surface of the insula, and the deep structures such as the basal ganglia and the internal capsule. This study was undertaken to report the results of insular surgery using modern microsurgical techniques in patients with epilepsy.
The authors performed a retrospective study of cases involving patients who underwent surgery for insular lesions associated with epilepsy over the last 10 years. In the majority of patients, intracranial electrodes were implanted with neuronavigation guidance to confirm the localization of the epileptic foci.
Nine patients underwent insular surgery: 7 for refractory epilepsy with no tumor and 2 for tumors associated with seizures. Four of the resections were performed in the left hemisphere. After an average follow-up of 54 months (range 14–122 months), Engel Class IA outcome had been achieved in 6 of 7 cases in the Epilepsy Surgery Group. The remaining patient had an Engel Class III outcome after partial insular resection but later became seizurefree (Engel Class IA) following insular Gamma Knife surgery.
Postoperatively, the majority of patients suffered from minor reversible hemipareses that disappeared completely within a few months. There was no surgical mortality.
Insular surgery is both safe and beneficial when it is well planned and performed with modern microsurgical techniques and good anatomical knowledge. Insulectomy is associated with little permanent morbidity and a high rate of seizure control. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first series of insulectomies predominantly performed for refractory epilepsy since those performed by Penfield.
Ismail Sidky Mohamed, Dènahin Hinnoutondji Toffa, Manon Robert, Patrick Cossette, Arline-Aude Bérubé, Jean-Marc Saint-Hilaire, Alain Bouthillier, and Dang Khoa Nguyen
For patients with nonlesional refractory focal epilepsy (NLRFE), localization of the epileptogenic zone may be more arduous than for other types of epilepsy and frequently requires information from multiple noninvasive presurgical modalities and intracranial EEG (icEEG). In this prospective, blinded study, the authors assessed the clinical added value of magnetic source imaging (MSI) in the presurgical evaluation of patients with NLRFE.
This study prospectively included 57 consecutive patients with NLRFE who were considered for epilepsy surgery. All patients underwent noninvasive presurgical evaluation and then MSI. To determine the surgical plan, discussion of the results of the presurgical evaluation was first undertaken while discussion participants were blinded to the MSI results. MSI results were then presented. MSI influence on the initial management plan was assessed.
MSI results influenced patient management in 32 patients. MSI results led to the following changes in surgical strategy in 14 patients (25%): allowing direct surgery in 6 patients through facilitating the detection of subtle cortical dysplasia in 4 patients and providing additional concordant diagnostic information to other presurgical workup in another 2 patients; rejection of surgery in 3 patients originally deemed surgical candidates; change of plan from direct surgery to icEEG in 2 patients; and allowing icEEG in 3 patients deemed not surgical candidates. MSI results led to changed electrode locations and contact numbers in another 18 patients. Epilepsy surgery was performed in 26 patients influenced by MSI results and good surgical outcome was achieved in 21 patients.
This prospective, blinded study showed that information provided by MSI allows more informed icEEG planning and surgical outcome in a significant percentage of patients with NLRFE and should be included in the presurgical workup in those patients.