✓ After a ruptured aneurysm has been clipped in patients with multiple aneurysms, the question often arises whether to use volume expansion and/or hypertensive treatment to prevent delayed cerebral ischemia (vasospasm). There is understandable concern regarding the possible rupture of unprotected aneurysms under additional hemodynamic stress. In a series of 199 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who underwent early surgery, 31 were left with one or more unprotected aneurysms postoperatively. All patients were treated with prophylactic volume expansion based on a previously reported protocol. Mean central venous pressure during treatment was 10.3 cm H2O and mean arterial blood pressure 141/76 mm Hg; volume expansion was continued for 7 to 10 days. Eight patients developed symptoms of delayed cerebral ischemia and required additional volume expansion and induced hypertension. After institution of hypertension, four of these patients experienced a reversal of their symptoms, while four others developed cerebral infarcts. One patient died from massive cerebral infarction following vasospasm refractory to all measures. No patient suffered rupture of an unprotected aneurysm during hypervolemic treatment. It is concluded that the benefit of prophylactic hypervolemic hypertension in postoperative aneurysm patients warrants its use even in patients with unprotected aneurysms.
Dale M. Swift and Robert A. Solomon
William W. Scott, Bradley E. Weprin, and Dale M. Swift
Osteopetrosis is a rare congenital metabolic bone disease. There are very few reports in the literature associating cerebellar tonsillar herniation (CTH) and hydrocephalus requiring neurosurgical attention. The authors present cases of osteopetrosis requiring neurosurgical intervention from their practice and offer a detailed account of the literature.
A retrospective review was conducted at the authors' institution, and all children with osteopetrosis requiring neurosurgical attention were identified. Medical charts and radiographic studies were reviewed. Data including age at presentation, sex, symptoms at presentation, age at follow-up, the presence of any neurological comorbidities, and surgical procedures performed were recorded.
Four patients were identified as having osteopetrosis requiring neurosurgical attention at the authors' institution between January 1, 2005, and January 1, 2014. There were 3 females and 1 male with an average age at presentation of 11.1 years; patients were observed for a mean of 4.4 years. All of the patients were identified as harboring jugular foraminal stenosis and CTH. Seventy-five percent of these patients developed hydrocephalus, and in those cases a triventricular pattern of dilation was noted. One patient developed syringomyelia. Three of the 4 patients underwent neurosurgical procedures. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion was performed in 2 patients via a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in one case and an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in the other. The former patient required a proximal revision at 2 years for bony overgrowth at the site of the bur hole. Two patients underwent a suboccipital decompression. In patients undergoing CSF diversion, there was improvement in ventricle size.
Variable degrees of hindbrain crowding and/or CTH are mentioned throughout the literature, suggesting that this entity is nearly always present in this patient population. The progressive triventricular hydrocephalus seen in these cases results from a complex combination of both communicating and noncommunicating pathology, which may depend on the type of osteopetrosis, age at presentation, and the presence and degree of venous collateralization, and it appears that the hydrocephalus is more prevalent and more likely to be treated in infants and in the younger, school-aged population. The acquired hindbrain fullness in conjunction with the triventricular pattern of hydrocephalus has kept the authors enthusiastic regarding the use of ETV in these complicated cases.
Dale Swift, Laszlo Nagy, and Brian Robertson
Hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia is thought to be due to increased dural sinus venous pressure resulting from narrowing of the jugular foramen. In this setting, where hydrocephalus is presumed to be “vascular” in origin and therefore communicating, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) would seem contraindicated. The authors describe 3 patients in whom ETV was successfully performed, resulting in MR imaging–documented decreases in ventricle size. The patients were 11 months, 33 months, and 13 years at the time of surgery. All patients had serial preoperative MR images demonstrating progressive hydrocephalus in a “triventricular” pattern with a small fourth ventricle but an open aqueduct. All patients had undergone suboccipital decompression for foramen magnum stenosis prior to the treatment of hydrocephalus. Preoperative retrograde venography revealed variable pressure gradients across the jugular foramen. It is postulated that the increase in intracranial venous pressure resulting from jugular foramen stenosis may lead to disproportionate venous engorgement of the cerebellum and some degree of obstructive hydrocephalus amenable to ETV. The authors discuss the role of suboccipital decompression in the progression of hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia.
William W. Scott, Jeffrey A. Fearon, Dale M. Swift, and David J. Sacco
The optimal management of Chiari malformations in the setting of craniosynostosis is not well established. In this report the authors describe their outcomes with the combined technique of simultaneous suboccipital decompression (SOD) during posterior cranial vault remodeling (PCVR).
A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing PCVR and simultaneous SOD. Demographic data, diagnosis, imaging studies, operative intervention, and clinical follow-up were evaluated.
Thirty-four patients were identified as having undergone a simultaneous PCVR/SOD for Chiari malformation associated with craniosynostosis. Eighty-eight percent of these patients had syndromic, multisutural craniosynostosis, and the remaining patients had unilateral lambdoid craniosynostosis. There were no postoperative complications as a direct result from this combined procedure. Two patients required a subsequent direct approach for decompression of the Chiari malformation. The interval between these subsequent surgeries was 3 years and 19 months.
Chiari malformations are commonly associated with syndromic, complex craniosynostosis and isolated lambdoid craniosynostosis. In appropriately selected patients, a combined posterior cranial vault enlargement and SOD of the foramen magnum is associated with a low complication rate and appears to be an effective procedure.
Thomas G. Psarros, Dale Swift, Arlynn F. Mulne, and Dennis K. Burns
✓This unusual mixed glioneuronal neoplasm of the spine resembling central neurocytoma is only the second reported example of a neoplasm of this type involving the spinal cord and is, seemingly, the first to present with diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination and communicating hydrocephalus. This 15-month-old boy presented with somnolence, bilateral sixth nerve palsy, and lower-extremity weakness and was found to harbor a primary neoplasm within the thoracic spine and associated syrinx, widespread leptomeningeal dissemination, and communicating hydrocephalus. The patient underwent cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, thoracic laminectomy for tumor debulking and biopsy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy to the neuraxis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was marked by evidence of mixed glial (glial fibrillary acidic protein—positive) and neuronal (synaptophysin-positive) differentiation. Mitotic activity was inconspicuous. No areas of vascular proliferation, necrosis, or marked nuclear pleomorphism were noted. Mixed glioneuronal neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of tumors whose biological potential remains incompletely defined. The present case illustrates the reality that some of these neoplasms can be clinically aggressive, despite comparatively bland histological features. The authors' goal is to acquaint neurosurgeons with the expanding spectrum of mixed glioneuronal neoplasms and with the potential of some of these lesions to pursue an aggressive clinical course.
A. Leland Albright, Richard Gilmartin, Dale Swift, Linda E. Krach, Cindy B. Ivanhoe, and John F. McLaughlin
Object. The goal of this study was to ascertain the long-term effectiveness and safety of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) in the treatment of spasticity of cerebral origin in children and young adults.
Methods. A prospective, multicenter study was conducted in 68 patients who had been enrolled in the initial evaluation of ITB therapy and were willing to participate in long-term surveillance. Seventy-three percent of the patients were younger than 16 years of age at the time of study entry. The patients were examined at least every 3 months and were observed for an average of 70 months. At each follow-up visit, spasticity in the upper and lower extremities was evaluated by applying Ashworth scores. All adverse events and complications were recorded on standardized data forms.
Spasticity in both upper and lower extremities decreased significantly (p < 0.005) and remained decreased up to 10 years. The dosage of ITB increased from a mean of 157 (µg/day 3 months after pump insertion to 300 (µg/day at 2 years postimplantation, and remained relatively stable thereafter. There were no significant differences in ITB dosage in children of different ages. Adverse events potentially related to ITB therapy occurred in 50% of patients within 2 months after pump insertion and in 50% of patients thereafter; hypotonia and lethargy were the two most common adverse events. The most common complications of surgery were catheter-related problems (31%), seromas (24%), and cerebrospinal fluid leaks (15%).
Conclusions. Intrathecal baclofen provides effective long-term treatment of spasticity of cerebral origin and its effects do not appear to diminish with time. This therapy is frequently associated with adverse side effects that usually can be alleviated by adjustments in dosage.
Jun Kim, Vishal J. Patel, Tarek Y. El Ahmadieh, DaiWai M. Olson, and Dale M. Swift
Ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPSs) for hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia are known to have a higher failure rate than in other hydrocephalus populations. However, the etiology of hydrocephalus in this group is considered “communicating,” and, therefore, potentially not amenable to endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). ETV has, nonetheless, been reported to be successful in a small number of patients with achondroplasia. The authors aimed to investigate the long-term results of ETV in this population.
Patients with achondroplasia who had undergone surgical treatment for hydrocephalus (ETV or VPS placement) were identified. In patients who had undergone ETV, medical records and neuroimages were reviewed to determine ventricular volumes and frontal and occipital horn ratios (FOHRs) pre- and postoperatively, as well as the incidence of surgical complications and reoperation. Patients who underwent VPS placement were included for historical comparison, and their medical records were reviewed for basic demographic information as well as the incidence of surgical complications and reoperation.
Of 114 pediatric patients with achondroplasia referred for neurosurgical consultation, 19 (17%) were treated for hydrocephalus; 10 patients underwent ETV only, 7 patients underwent VPS placement only, and 2 patients had a VPS placed followed by ETV. In patients treated with ETV, ventricular volume and FOHRs were normal, if measured at birth, and increased significantly until the time of the ETV. After ETV, all patients demonstrated significant and sustained decreases in ventricular measurements with surveillance up to 15 years. There was a statistically significant difference in rates of repeat CSF surgery between the ETV and VPS cohorts (0/12 vs 7/9, p < 0.001).
ETV was efficacious, safe, and durable in the treatment of hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia. Although many studies have indicated that hydrocephalus in these patients is “communicating,” a subset may develop an “obstructive” component that is progressive and responsive to ETV.
Brett A. Whittemore, Dale M. Swift, Bradley E. Weprin, and Frederick J. Duffy Jr.
Large myelomeningocele defects and poor surrounding tissue quality make some defects particularly difficult to close primarily. This paper describes the superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap technique for defect closure and long-term clinical outcomes.
The technique for closing a myelomeningocele with an SGAP flap is described. A retrospective chart review was performed on a cohort of 11 patients who underwent closure in this manner.
Between 1999 and 2015, 271 myelomeningoceles were closed, 11 of which were SGAP flap closures. The mean defect size was 5.5 × 7.2 cm. All patients underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting. There were no cases of CSF infection. Five patients had minor wound issues (small dehiscence or eschar formation) that healed satisfactorily. Two patients had soft-tissue wound infections and required multiple revisions; one patient had multiple severe developmental abnormalities, and the other patient's flap had healed with a thick underlying fat pad 4 months postoperatively. No patients had significant surgical site pain on long-term follow-up.
The SGAP flap technique achieves tension-free closure with vascularized, fat-bearing full-thickness skin. It is useful for closure of large, complex defects, is not associated with chronic pain, and carries a morbidity risk that is comparable to other complex myelomeningocele closure techniques.
Atif Haque, Angela V. Price, Frederick H. Sklar, Dale M. Swift, Bradley E. Weprin, and David J. Sacco
Rigid fixation of the upper cervical spine has become an established method of durable stabilization for a variety of craniocervical pathological entities in children. In children, specifically, the use of C1–2 transarticular screws has been proposed in recent literature to be the gold standard configuration for pathology involving these levels. The authors reviewed the use of rigid fixation techniques alternative to C1–2 transarticular screws in children. Factors evaluated included ease of placement, complications, and postoperative stability.
Seventeen patients, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years (mean 9.6 years), underwent screw fixation involving the atlas or axis for a multitude of pathologies, including os odontoideum, Down syndrome, congenital instability, iatrogenic instability, or posttraumatic instability. All patients had preoperative instability of the occipitocervical or atlantoaxial spine demonstrated on dynamic lateral cervical spine radiographs. All patients also underwent preoperative CT scanning and MR imaging to evaluate the anatomical feasibility of the selected hardware placement. Thirteen patients underwent C1–2 fusion, and 4 underwent occipitocervical fusion, all incorporating C-1 lateral mass screws, C-2 pars screws, and/or C-2 laminar screws within their constructs. Patients who underwent occipitocervical fusion had no instrumentation placed at C-1. One patient's construct included sublaminar wiring at C-2. All patients received autograft onlay either from from rib (in 15 patients), split-thickness skull (1 patient), or local bone harvested within the operative field (1 patient). Nine patients' constructs were supplemented with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein at the discretion of the attending physician. Eight patients had surgical sacrifice of 1 or both C-2 nerve roots to better facilitate visualization of the C-1 lateral mass. One patient was placed in halo-vest orthosis postoperatively, while the rest were maintained in rigid collars.
All 17 patients underwent immediate postoperative CT scanning to evaluate hardware placement. Follow-up was achieved in 16 cases, ranging from 2 to 39 months (mean 14 months), and repeated dynamic lateral cervical spine radiography was performed in these patients at the end of their follow-up period. Some, but not all patients, also underwent delayed postoperative CT scans, which were done at the discretion of the treating attending physician. No neurovascular injuries were encountered, no hardware revisions were required, and no infections were seen. No postoperative pain was seen in patients who underwent C-2 nerve root sacrifice. Stability was achieved in all patients postoperatively. In all patients who underwent delayed postoperative CT scanning, the presence of bridging bone was shown spanning the fused levels.
Screw fixation of the atlas using lateral mass screws, in conjunction with C-2 root sacrifice in selected cases, and of the axis using pars or laminar screws is a safe method for achieving rigid fixation of the upper cervical spine in the pediatric population.
Amir Kershenovich, Angela V. Price, Korgun Koral, Stan Goldman, and Dale M. Swift
The second most frequent central nervous system involvement pattern in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare condition documented in a number of reports called “neurodegenerative LCH” (ND-LCH). Magnetic resonance images confirming the presence of the disease usually demonstrate striking symmetric bilateral hyperintensities predominantly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, pons, and/or cerebral white matter. The authors here describe for the first time in the literature a patient with ND-LCH and concomitant hydrocephalus initially treated using endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). This 9-year-old boy, who had undergone chemotherapy for skin and lung LCH without central nervous system involvement at the age of 10 months, presented with acute ataxia, headaches, and paraparesis and a 1-year history of gradually increasing clumsiness. Magnetic resonance images showed obstructive hydrocephalus at the level of the aqueduct of Sylvius and signs of ND-LCH. After registering high intracranial pressure (ICP) spikes with an intraparenchymal pressure monitor, an ETV was performed. A second ETV was required months later because of ostomy occlusion, and finally a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed because of ostomy reocclusion. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy was initially considered the treatment of choice to divert cerebrospinal fluid without leaving a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and to obtain biopsy specimens from the periinfundibular recess area. The third ventriculostomy occluded twice, and an endoscopic aqueduct fenestration was unsuccessful. The authors hypothesized that an inflammatory process related to late ND disease was responsible for the occlusions. Biopsy specimens from the infundibular recess and fornix column did not show histopathogical abnormalities. Increased ICP symptoms resolved with cerebrospinal fluid diversion. This case is the first instance of ND-LCH with hydrocephalus reported in the literature to date. Shunt placement rather than ETV seems to be the favorable choice in relieving elevated ICP.