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Masahiko Watanabe, Daisuke Sakai, Daisuke Matsuyama, Yukihiro Yamamoto, Masato Sato, and Joji Mochida

Object

The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical site infection after spine surgery, noting the amount of saline used for intraoperative irrigation to minimize wound contamination.

Methods

The authors studied 223 consecutive spine operations from January 2006 through December 2006 at our institute. For a case to meet inclusion criteria as a site infection, it needed to require surgical incision and drainage and show positive intraoperative cultures. Preoperative and intraoperative data regarding each patient were collected. Patient characteristics recorded included age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Preoperative risk factors included preoperative hospital stay, history of smoking, presence of diabetes, and an operation for a traumatized spine. Intraoperative factors that might have been risk factors for infection were collected and analyzed; these included type of procedure, estimated blood loss, duration of operation, and mean amount of saline used for irrigation per hour. Data were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

Results

The incidence of surgical site infection in this population was 6.3%. According to the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of operation and intraoperative blood loss, but not in patient age, BMI, or preoperative hospital stay. The mean amount of saline used for irrigation in the infected group was less than in the noninfected group, but was not significantly different. In the multivariate analysis, sex, advanced age (> 60 years), smoking history, and obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) did not show significant differences. In the analysis of patient characteristics, only diabetes (patients receiving any medications or insulin therapy at the time of surgery) was independently associated with an increased risk of surgical site infection (OR 4.88). In the comparison of trauma and elective surgery, trauma showed a significant association with surgical site infection (OR 9.42). In the analysis of surgical factors, a sufficient amount of saline for irrigation (mean > 2000 ml/hour) showed a strong association with the prevention of surgical site infection (OR 0.08), but prolonged operation time (> 3 hours), high blood loss (> 300 g), and instrumentation were not associated with surgical site infection.

Conclusions

Diabetes, trauma, and insufficient intraoperative irrigation of the surgical wound were independent and direct risk factors for surgical site infection following spine surgery. To prevent surgical site infection in spine surgery, it is important to control the perioperative serum glucose levels in patients with diabetes, avoid any delay of surgery in patients with trauma, and decrease intraoperative contamination by irrigating > 2000 ml/hour of saline in all patients.

Open access

Daisuke Sakai, Jordy Schol, Akihiko Hiyama, Hiroyuki Katoh, Masahiro Tanaka, Masato Sato, and Masahiko Watanabe

OBJECTIVE

The objectives of this study were to apply the simultaneous translation on two rods (ST2R) maneuver involving rods contoured with a convexity at the desired thoracic kyphosis (TK) apex level and to assess the effects on the ability to support triplanar deformity corrections, including TK apex improvement, in patients with hypokyphotic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

METHODS

Using retrospective analysis, the authors examined the digital records that included 2- to 4-week, 1-year, and 2-year postoperative radiographic follow-up data of female hypokyphotic (TK < 20°) AIS patients (Lenke type 1–3) treated with ST2R. The authors assessed the corrections of triplanar deformities by examining the main Cobb angle, TK, rib hump, apical vertebral rotation, Scoliosis Research Society 22-item questionnaire scores, and TK apex translocation. In order to better grasp the potential of ST2R, the outcomes were compared with those of a historical matched case-control cohort treated with a standard rod rotation (RR) maneuver.

RESULTS

Data were analyzed for 25 AIS patients treated with ST2R and 27 patients treated with RR. The ST2R group had significant improvements in the main Cobb angle and TK, reduction in the rib hump size at each time point, and a final correction rate of 72%. ST2R treatment significantly increased the kyphosis apex by an average of 2.2 levels. The correction rate was higher at each time point in the ST2R group than in the RR group. ST2R engendered favorable TK corrections, although the differences were nonsignificant, at 2 years compared with the RR group (p = 0.056). The TK apex location was significantly improved in the ST2R cohort (p < 0.001). At the 1-month follow-up, hypokyphosis was resolved in 92% of the ST2R cohort compared with 30% of the RR cohort.

CONCLUSIONS

Resolving hypokyphotic AIS remains challenging. The ST2R technique supported significant triplanar corrections, including TK apex translocation and restoration of hypokyphosis in most patients. Comparisons with the RR cohort require caution because of differences in the implant profile. However, ST2R significantly improved the coronal and sagittal corrections. It also allowed for distribution of correctional forces over two rod implants instead of one, which should decrease the risk of screw pullout and rod flattening. It is hoped that the description here of commercially available reducers used with the authors’ surgical technique will encourage other clinicians to consider using the ST2R technique.

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Masahiko Watanabe, Daisuke Sakai, Yukihiro Yamamoto, Masato Sato, and Joji Mochida

Object

Extension teardrop fracture of the axis is an extremely rare cervical spinal injury. The classic clinical features, which have mainly been described by radiologists rather than spine surgeons, include its occurrence in elderly patients with osteoporosis, an association with minimal or no prevertebral soft-tissue swelling, and an absence of associated neurological deficit. However, recent case studies indicate notable exceptions to these clinical features, although few studies have investigated osteoporosis in these patients. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the clinical features of extension teardrop fracture of the axis.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed data obtained in 13 patients with regard to their injury etiology, neurological deficit, treatment and outcome (residual neck pain), and imaging findings (size and displacement of the fragment, C2–3 subluxation, disc injury, and osteoporosis of the axis).

Results

Extension teardrop fracture of the axis constituted 11.6% of upper cervical spinal injuries at the authors' institute. The mean age of the patients was 49.5 years and distinct osteoporosis was identified in only 1 patient. A C2–3 subluxation was observed in 2 patients, in whom the displacement of the fragment was significant, although its size did not appear to have an effect. Magnetic resonance imaging, undertaken in 7 patients within 48 hours of injury, showed no disc injuries. Instability of the cervical spine was absent in all patient at follow-up. Only one patient underwent surgery for the presenting symptoms of dysphagia. The other patients were treated conservatively. The authors examined 9 patients directly; these patients had bony fusion and did not complain of neck pain, except for a patient with traumatic spondylolisthesis.

Conclusions

Extension teardrop fracture of the axis is generally caused by hyperextension of the cervical spine caused by a direct high-energy blow to the forehead or mandible. Based on the present case study, the authors believe that osteopenia and older age should not be considered risk factors. Most patients with an extension teardrop fracture of the axis can be treated conservatively, and surgical intervention may only be indicated for specific cases, such as those in which a patient presents with dysphagia or with other complicated fractures.

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Masaaki Imai, Masahiko Watanabe, Kaori Suyama, Takahiro Osada, Daisuke Sakai, Hiroshi Kawada, Mitsunori Matsumae, and Joji Mochida

Object

Inhibition of remyelination is part of the complex problem of persistent dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI), and residual myelin debris may be a factor that inhibits remyelination. Phagocytosis by microglial cells and by macrophages that migrate from blood vessels plays a major role in the clearance of myelin debris. The object of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the failure of significant remyelination after SCI.

Methods

The authors investigated macrophage recruitment and related factors in rats by comparing a contusion model (representing contusive SCI with residual myelin debris and failure of remyelination) with a model consisting of chemical demyelination by lysophosphatidylcholine (representing multiple sclerosis with early clearance of myelin debris and remyelination).

The origin of infiltrating macrophages was investigated using mice transplanted with bone marrow cells from green fluorescent protein–transfected mice. The changes in levels of residual myelin debris and the infiltration of activated macrophages in demyelinated lesions were investigated by immunostaining at 2, 4, and 7 days postinjury. To investigate various factors that might be involved, the authors also investigated gene expression of macrophage chemotactic factors and adhesion factors.

Results

Activated macrophages coexpressing green fluorescent protein constituted the major cell population in the lesions, indicating that the macrophages in both models were mainly derived from the bone marrow, and that very few were derived from the intrinsic microglia. Immunostaining showed that in the contusion model, myelin debris persisted for a long period, and the infiltration of macrophages was significantly delayed. Among the chemotactic factors, the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor were lower in the contusion model at 2 and 4 days postinjury.

Conclusions

The results suggest that the delayed infiltration of activated macrophages is related to persistence of myelin debris after contusive SCI, resulting in the inhibition of remyelination.

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Takahiro Osada, Masahiko Watanabe, Atsuhiro Hasuo, Masaaki Imai, Kaori Suyama, Daisuke Sakai, Hiroshi Kawada, Mitsunori Matsumae, and Joji Mochida

Object

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine that induces undifferentiated stem cells from the bone marrow (BM) into the peripheral blood. Stem cell factor (SCF) is also a hematopoietic cytokine that stimulates the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells and has neuroprotective effects. In cerebrally infarcted mice, the combination of G-CSF and SCF promotes the differentiation of BM-derived cells into neural cells, stimulates the proliferation of intrinsic neural stem cells, and improves motor function. The object of this study was to investigate the effects of these cytokines on BM stem cells, intrinsic cells, and motor function recovery in spinal cord–injured mice.

Methods

For marking BM-derived cells, the authors induced contusive spinal cord injury in mice transplanted with BM cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP)–transgenic mice after whole-body irradiation. These mice were treated with G-CSF and SCF in the subacute injury phase. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected into these mice to label proliferating cells. The cell numbers and phenotype of the BM-derived cells were evaluated, and the change in intrinsic cells (proliferation, accumulation, and differentiation) was noted using immunohistological analysis at 4 weeks postinjury (wpi). A behavior analysis was conducted until 12 wpi using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan locomotor rating scale.

Results

In the SCF + G-CSF group, improvement in hindlimb motor function was significantly greater than in the SCF group, G-CSF group, and sham-treatment (vehicle) group after 8 wpi. At 4 wpi, the number of GFP+ BM-derived cells induced in the lesion did not significantly differ between groups. At 4 wpi, the authors evaluated perilesional GFP− intrinsic spinal cord cells. The number of GFP− and F4/80+ cells was significantly greater in the SCF + G-CSF group than in the other 3 groups. As compared with the sham group, the number of NG2+/BrdU+ cells was significantly increased in the SCF + G-CSF group.

Conclusions

In this study, the combined administration of SCF and G-CSF in traumatic spinal cord injury not only improved motor function, but also induced the accumulation of intrinsic microglia and the active proliferation of intrinsic oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

Free access

Ryota Kurogi, Akiko Kada, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Takanari Kitazono, Nobuyuki Sakai, Yoichiro Hashimoto, Yoshiaki Shiokawa, Shigeru Miyachi, Yuji Matsumaru, Toru Iwama, Teiji Tominaga, Daisuke Onozuka, Ataru Nishimura, Koichi Arimura, Ai Kurogi, Nice Ren, Akihito Hagihara, Yuriko Nakaoku, Hajime Arai, Susumu Miyamoto, Kunihiro Nishimura, and Koji Iihara

OBJECTIVE

Improved outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated at high-volume centers have been reported. The authors sought to examine whether hospital case volume and comprehensive stroke center (CSC) capabilities affect outcomes in patients treated with clipping or coiling for SAH.

METHODS

The authors conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in 27,490 SAH patients who underwent clipping or coiling in 621 institutions between 2010 and 2015 and whose data were collected from the Japanese nationwide J-ASPECT Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The CSC capabilities of each hospital were assessed by use of a validated scoring system based on answers to a previously reported 25-item questionnaire (CSC score 1–25 points). Hospitals were classified into quartiles based on CSC scores and case volumes of clipping or coiling for SAH.

RESULTS

Overall, the absolute risk reductions associated with high versus low case volumes and high versus low CSC scores were relatively small. Nevertheless, in patients who underwent clipping, a high case volume (> 14 cases/yr) was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (Q1 as control, Q4 OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55–0.90) but not with short-term poor outcome. In patients who underwent coiling, a high case volume (> 9 cases/yr) was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (Q4 OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53–0.90) and short-term poor outcomes (Q3 [> 5 cases/yr] OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59–0.96 vs Q4 OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51–0.82). A high CSC score (> 19 points) was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality for clipping (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.86) but not coiling treatment. There was no association between CSC capabilities and short-term poor outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

The effects of case volume and CSC capabilities on in-hospital mortality and short-term functional outcomes in SAH patients differed between patients undergoing clipping and those undergoing coiling. In the modern endovascular era, better outcomes of clipping may be achieved in facilities with high CSC capabilities.

Free access

Ryota Kurogi, Akiko Kada, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Takanari Kitazono, Nobuyuki Sakai, Yoichiro Hashimoto, Yoshiaki Shiokawa, Shigeru Miyachi, Yuji Matsumaru, Toru Iwama, Teiji Tominaga, Daisuke Onozuka, Ataru Nishimura, Koichi Arimura, Ai Kurogi, Nice Ren, Akihito Hagihara, Yuriko Nakaoku, Hajime Arai, Susumu Miyamoto, Kunihiro Nishimura, and Koji Iihara

OBJECTIVE

Improved outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated at high-volume centers have been reported. The authors sought to examine whether hospital case volume and comprehensive stroke center (CSC) capabilities affect outcomes in patients treated with clipping or coiling for SAH.

METHODS

The authors conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in 27,490 SAH patients who underwent clipping or coiling in 621 institutions between 2010 and 2015 and whose data were collected from the Japanese nationwide J-ASPECT Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The CSC capabilities of each hospital were assessed by use of a validated scoring system based on answers to a previously reported 25-item questionnaire (CSC score 1–25 points). Hospitals were classified into quartiles based on CSC scores and case volumes of clipping or coiling for SAH.

RESULTS

Overall, the absolute risk reductions associated with high versus low case volumes and high versus low CSC scores were relatively small. Nevertheless, in patients who underwent clipping, a high case volume (> 14 cases/yr) was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (Q1 as control, Q4 OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55–0.90) but not with short-term poor outcome. In patients who underwent coiling, a high case volume (> 9 cases/yr) was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (Q4 OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53–0.90) and short-term poor outcomes (Q3 [> 5 cases/yr] OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59–0.96 vs Q4 OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51–0.82). A high CSC score (> 19 points) was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality for clipping (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.86) but not coiling treatment. There was no association between CSC capabilities and short-term poor outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

The effects of case volume and CSC capabilities on in-hospital mortality and short-term functional outcomes in SAH patients differed between patients undergoing clipping and those undergoing coiling. In the modern endovascular era, better outcomes of clipping may be achieved in facilities with high CSC capabilities.