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Toshikazu Kimura, Daichi Nakagawa and Kensuke Kawai

A large basilar trunk aneurysm was incidentally found in a 77-year-old woman in examination for headache. Though it was asymptomatic, high signal intensity was noticed in the brainstem around the aneurysm on FLAIR image of MRI. As she was otherwise healthy, surgical clipping was performed through anterior temporal approach.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/0soWM8meCW8.

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Masahiro Shin, Kenji Kondo, Shunya Hanakita, Keigo Suzukawa, Taichi Kin, Masaaki Shojima, Daichi Nakagawa and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECT

In recent years, application of endoscopic transnasal surgery (ETS) has been expanded to orbital lesions, and preliminary results have started to be published for medially located soft mass lesions. However, reports on experience with endoscopic intraorbital surgery aimed at resection of invasive skull base tumors remains quite limited. This report presents the authors’ experience with ETS for locally aggressive tumors involving the orbit.

METHODS

ETS was performed for 15 cases of aggressive tumors involving the orbit: 5 meningiomas (meningothelial, n = 3; atypical, n = 1; anaplastic, n = 1), 4 chordomas, 2 chondrosarcomas, and 4 others (metastasis from systemic myxofibrosarcoma, schwannoma, inverted papilloma, and acinic cell carcinoma, n = 1 each). Among these, 9 tumors were located outside the periorbita and 6 inside the periorbita. In 6 intraperiosteal tumors, 5 were intraconal lesions, of which 3 arose in the muscle cone (anaplastic meningioma, optic sheath meningioma, and metastatic myxofibrosarcoma), and 2 meningothelial meningioma had invaded from the sphenoid ridge or the cavernous sinus into the muscle cone through the optic canal and the superior orbital fissure. A case of schwannoma originated around the cavernous sinus and pterygopalatine fossa and extended extraconally into the periorbita. Intraoperatively, ethmoid air cells and the lamina papyracea were removed, and extraperiosteal tumors were safely approached. For intraperiosteal tumors, the periorbita was widely opened, and the tumors were approached through the surgical window between the rectus and oblique muscles.

RESULTS

Gross-total resection was achieved for 12 of the 15 tumors, including 2 intraconal lesions. After surgery, exophthalmos resolved in all 8 patients with this symptom, and diplopia resolved in 5 of 6 patients. Improvement of visual symptoms was reported by 4 of 5 patients with loss of visual acuity or constriction of the visual field. Postoperatively, 1 patient showed mild, transient worsening of existing facial dysesthesia, and another showed transient ptosis and mild hypesthesia of the forehead on the affected side. All those symptoms resolved within 3 months. No patients showed enophthalmos, worsening of diplopia or visual function, or impairment of olfaction after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

ETS appears acceptable as a less-invasive alternative for treating aggressive tumors involving the orbit. For extraperiosteal tumors, gross-total removal can generally be achieved without neurological complications. For intraperiosteal tumors, surgical indications should be carefully discussed, considering the relationship between the tumor and normal anatomy. Wide opening of the periorbital window is advocated to create a sufficient surgical pathway between the extraocular muscles, allowing a balance between functional preservation and successful tumor resection.

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Yasunori Nagahama, Brian J. Dlouhy, Daichi Nakagawa, Janina Kamm, David Hasan, Matthew A. Howard III and Hiroto Kawasaki

Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) provides invaluable information in determining seizure focus and spread due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, which are not afforded by noninvasive studies. Electrodes of various types (e.g., grid, strip, and depth electrodes) and configurations are often used for optimum coverage of suspected areas of seizure onset and propagation. Given the fixed intracranial volume and added mass effect from placement of cortical electrodes, brain edema and postoperative deficits can occur.

The authors describe a simple, inexpensive, and highly effective technique of bone flap replacement using standard titanium plates to expand the intracranial volume and minimize risks of brain compression and intracranial hypertension. Rectangular titanium plates are bent and placed in a way that secures the bone flap in a slightly elevated position relative to the adjacent calvaria during iEEG monitoring. The authors evaluated the degree of bone flap elevation and amount of volume created using this technique in 3 iEEG cases. They then compared these results with the bone flap elevation and volume created using linear titanium plates, a method they had used previously. The use of rectangular plates produced on average 6.6 mm of bone flap elevation, compared with only 1.8 mm of bone flap elevation with the use of linear plates, resulting in a statistically significant 261% increase in bone flap elevation (p ≤ 0.001). The authors suggest that rectangular plates may provide stronger resistance to scalp tension after myocutaneous skin closure compared with the linear plates and that subsidence of the bone flap likely occurred with the use of linear plates. In summary, the described technique utilizing rectangular plates creates significantly increased bone flap elevation compared with a similar method using linear plates, and it may reduce the risk of neurological deficits related to intracranial electrode placement.

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Yasunori Nagahama, Alan J. Schmitt, Daichi Nakagawa, Adam S. Vesole, Janina Kamm, Christopher K. Kovach, David Hasan, Mark Granner, Brian J. Dlouhy, Matthew A. Howard III and Hiroto Kawasaki

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) provides valuable information that guides clinical decision-making in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, but it carries technical challenges and risks. The technical approaches used and reported rates of complications vary across institutions and evolve over time with increasing experience. In this report, the authors describe the strategy at the University of Iowa using both surface and depth electrodes and analyze outcomes and complications.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review and analysis of all patients who underwent craniotomy and electrode implantation from January 2006 through December 2015 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. The basic demographic and clinical information was collected, including electrode coverage, monitoring results, outcomes, and complications. The correlations between clinically significant complications with various clinical variables were analyzed using multivariate analysis. The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate a change in the rate of complications over the study period.

RESULTS

Ninety-one patients (mean age 29 ± 14 years, range 3–62 years), including 22 pediatric patients, underwent iEEG. Subdural surface (grid and/or strip) electrodes were utilized in all patients, and depth electrodes were also placed in 89 (97.8%) patients. The total number of electrode contacts placed per patient averaged 151 ± 58. The duration of invasive monitoring averaged 12.0 ± 5.1 days. In 84 (92.3%) patients, a seizure focus was localized by ictal onset (82 cases) or inferred based on interictal discharges (2 patients). Localization was achieved based on data obtained from surface electrodes alone (29 patients), depth electrodes alone (13 patients), or a combination of both surface and depth electrodes (42 patients). Seventy-two (79.1%) patients ultimately underwent resective surgery. Forty-seven (65.3%) and 18 (25.0%) patients achieved modified Engel class I and II outcomes, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 3.9 ± 2.9 (range 0.1–10.5) years. Clinically significant complications occurred in 8 patients, including hematoma in 3 (3.3%) patients, infection/osteomyelitis in 3 (3.3%) patients, and edema/compression in 2 (2.2%) patients. One patient developed a permanent neurological deficit (1.1%), and there were no deaths. The hemorrhagic and edema/compression complications correlated significantly with the total number of electrode contacts (p = 0.01), but not with age, a history of prior cranial surgery, laterality, monitoring duration, and the number of each electrode type. The small number of infectious complications precluded multivariate analysis. The number of complications decreased from 5 of 36 cases (13.9%) to 3 of 55 cases (5.5%) during the first and last 5 years, respectively, but this change was not statistically significant (p = 0.26).

CONCLUSIONS

An iEEG implantation strategy that makes use of both surface and depth electrodes is safe and effective at identifying seizure foci in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. With experience and iterative refinement of technical surgical details, the risk of complications has decreased over time.

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Joseph S. Hudson, Yasunori Nagahama, Daichi Nakagawa, Robert M. Starke, Brian J. Dlouhy, James C. Torner, Pascal Jabbour, Lauren Allan, Colin P. Derdeyn, Jeremy D. W. Greenlee and David Hasan

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial stenting and flow diversion require the use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) to prevent in-stent thrombosis. DAPT may significantly increase the risk of hemorrhagic complications in patients who require subsequent surgical interventions. In this study, the authors sought to investigate whether DAPT is a risk factor for hemorrhagic complications associated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Moreover, the authors sought to compare VP shunt complication rates with respect to the shunt’s location from the initial external ventricular drain (EVD) site.

METHODS

Patients with aSAH who presented to the authors’ institution from July 2009 through November 2016 and required VP shunt placement for persistent hydrocephalus were included. The rates of hemorrhagic complications associated with VP shunt placement were compared between patients who were on a regimen of DAPT (aspirin and clopidogrel) for use of a stent or flow diverter, and patients who underwent microsurgical clipping or coiling only and were not on DAPT using a backward stepwise multivariate analysis. Rates of radiographic hemorrhage and infection-related VP shunt revision were compared between patients who underwent VP shunt placement along the same track and those who underwent VP shunt placement at a different site (contralateral or posterior) from the initial EVD.

RESULTS

A total of 443 patients were admitted for the management of aSAH. Eighty of these patients eventually required VP shunt placement. Thirty-two patients (40%) had been treated with stent-assisted coiling or flow diverters and required DAPT, whereas 48 patients (60%) had been treated with coiling without stents or surgical clipping and were not on DAPT at the time of VP shunt placement. A total of 8 cases (10%) of new hemorrhage were observed along the intracranial proximal catheter of the VP shunt. Seven of these hemorrhages were observed in patients on DAPT, and 1 occurred in a patient not on DAPT. After multivariate analysis, only DAPT was significantly associated with hemorrhage (OR 31.23, 95% CI 2.98–327.32; p = 0.0001). One patient (3%) on DAPT who experienced hemorrhage required shunt revision for hemorrhage-associated proximal catheter blockage. The remaining 7 hemorrhages were clinically insignificant. The difference in rates of hemorrhage between shunt placement along the same track and placement at a different site of 0.07 was not significant (6/47 vs 2/32, p = 0.46). The difference in infection-related VP shunt revision rate was not significantly different (1/47 vs 3/32, p = 0.2978).

CONCLUSIONS

This clinical series confirms that, in patients with ruptured aneurysms who are candidates for stent-assisted coiling or flow diversion, the risk of clinically significant VP shunt–associated hemorrhage with DAPT is low. In an era of evolving endovascular therapeutics, stenting or flow diversion is a viable option in select aSAH patients.

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Masanori Yoshino, Taichi Kin, Akihiro Ito, Toki Saito, Daichi Nakagawa, Kenji Ino, Kyousuke Kamada, Harushi Mori, Akira Kunimatsu, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Hiroshi Oyama and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECT

The authors assessed whether the combined use of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and contrast-enhanced (CE) fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) could improve the accuracy of predicting the courses of the facial and cochlear nerves before surgery.

METHODS

The population was composed of 22 patients with vestibular schwannoma in whom both the facial and cochlear nerves could be identified during surgery. According to DTT, depicted fibers running from the internal auditory canal to the brainstem were judged to represent the facial or vestibulocochlear nerve. With regard to imaging, the authors investigated multifused CE-FIESTA scans, in which all 3D vessel models were shown simultaneously, from various angles. The low-intensity areas running along the tumor from brainstem to the internal auditory canal were judged to represent the facial or vestibulocochlear nerve.

RESULTS

For all 22 patients, the rate of fibers depicted by DTT coinciding with the facial nerve was 13.6% (3/22), and that of fibers depicted by DTT coinciding with the cochlear nerve was 63.6% (14/22). The rate of candidates for nerves predicted by multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the facial nerve was 59.1% (13/22), and that of candidates for nerves predicted by multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the cochlear nerve was 4.5% (1/22). The rate of candidates for nerves predicted by combined DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the facial nerve was 63.6% (14/22), and that of candidates for nerves predicted by combined DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the cochlear nerve was 63.6% (14/22). The rate of candidates predicted by DTT coinciding with both facial and cochlear nerves was 0.0% (0/22), that of candidates predicted by multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with both facial and cochlear nerves was 4.5% (1/22), and that of candidates predicted by combined DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with both the facial and cochlear nerves was 45.5% (10/22).

CONCLUSIONS

By using a combination of DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA, the authors were able to increase the number of vestibular schwannoma patients for whom predicted results corresponded with the courses of both the facial and cochlear nerves, a result that has been considered difficult to achieve by use of a single modality only. Although the 3D image including these prediction results helped with comprehension of the 3D operative anatomy, the reliability of prediction remains to be established.

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Masanori Yoshino, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Taichi Kin, Toki Saito, Naoyuki Shono, Seiji Nomura, Daichi Nakagawa, Shunsaku Takayanagi, Hideaki Imai, Hiroshi Oyama and Nobuhito Saito

Successful resection of hemangioblastoma depends on preoperative assessment of the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins. Simultaneous 3D visualization of feeding arteries, draining veins, and surrounding structures is needed. The present study evaluated the usefulness of high-resolution 3D multifusion medical imaging (hr-3DMMI) for preoperative planning of hemangioblastoma. The hr-3DMMI combined MRI, MR angiography, thin-slice CT, and 3D rotated angiography. Surface rendering was mainly used for the creation of hr-3DMMI using multiple thresholds to create 3D models, and processing took approximately 3–5 hours. This hr-3DMMI technique was used in 5 patients for preoperative planning and the imaging findings were compared with the operative findings. Hr-3DMMI could simulate the whole 3D tumor as a unique sphere and show the precise penetration points of both feeding arteries and draining veins with the same spatial relationships as the original tumor. All feeding arteries and draining veins were found intraoperatively at the same position as estimated preoperatively, and were occluded as planned preoperatively. This hr-3DMMI technique could demonstrate the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins preoperatively and estimate the appropriate route for resection of the tumor. Hr-3DMMI is expected to be a very useful support tool for surgery of hemangioblastoma.

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Yasunori Nagahama, Alan J. Schmitt, Daichi Nakagawa, Adam S. Vesole, Janina Kamm, Christopher K. Kovach, David Hasan, Mark Granner, Brian J. Dlouhy, Matthew A. Howard III and Hiroto Kawasaki

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) provides valuable information that guides clinical decision-making in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, but it carries technical challenges and risks. The technical approaches used and reported rates of complications vary across institutions and evolve over time with increasing experience. In this report, the authors describe the strategy at the University of Iowa using both surface and depth electrodes and analyze outcomes and complications.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review and analysis of all patients who underwent craniotomy and electrode implantation from January 2006 through December 2015 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. The basic demographic and clinical information was collected, including electrode coverage, monitoring results, outcomes, and complications. The correlations between clinically significant complications with various clinical variables were analyzed using multivariate analysis. The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate a change in the rate of complications over the study period.

RESULTS

Ninety-one patients (mean age 29 ± 14 years, range 3–62 years), including 22 pediatric patients, underwent iEEG. Subdural surface (grid and/or strip) electrodes were utilized in all patients, and depth electrodes were also placed in 89 (97.8%) patients. The total number of electrode contacts placed per patient averaged 151 ± 58. The duration of invasive monitoring averaged 12.0 ± 5.1 days. In 84 (92.3%) patients, a seizure focus was localized by ictal onset (82 cases) or inferred based on interictal discharges (2 patients). Localization was achieved based on data obtained from surface electrodes alone (29 patients), depth electrodes alone (13 patients), or a combination of both surface and depth electrodes (42 patients). Seventy-two (79.1%) patients ultimately underwent resective surgery. Forty-seven (65.3%) and 18 (25.0%) patients achieved modified Engel class I and II outcomes, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 3.9 ± 2.9 (range 0.1–10.5) years. Clinically significant complications occurred in 8 patients, including hematoma in 3 (3.3%) patients, infection/osteomyelitis in 3 (3.3%) patients, and edema/compression in 2 (2.2%) patients. One patient developed a permanent neurological deficit (1.1%), and there were no deaths. The hemorrhagic and edema/compression complications correlated significantly with the total number of electrode contacts (p = 0.01), but not with age, a history of prior cranial surgery, laterality, monitoring duration, and the number of each electrode type. The small number of infectious complications precluded multivariate analysis. The number of complications decreased from 5 of 36 cases (13.9%) to 3 of 55 cases (5.5%) during the first and last 5 years, respectively, but this change was not statistically significant (p = 0.26).

CONCLUSIONS

An iEEG implantation strategy that makes use of both surface and depth electrodes is safe and effective at identifying seizure foci in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. With experience and iterative refinement of technical surgical details, the risk of complications has decreased over time.

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Yasunori Nagahama, Alan J. Schmitt, Brian J. Dlouhy, Adam S. Vesole, Phillip E. Gander, Christopher K. Kovach, Daichi Nakagawa, Mark A. Granner, Matthew A. Howard III and Hiroto Kawasaki

OBJECTIVE

The epileptogenic zones in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) involve regions outside the typical extent of anterior temporal lobectomy (i.e., “temporal plus epilepsy”), including portions of the supratemporal plane (STP). Failure to identify this subset of patients and adjust the surgical plan accordingly results in suboptimum surgical outcomes. There are unique technical challenges associated with obtaining recordings from the STP. The authors sought to examine the clinical utility and safety of placing depth electrodes within the STP in patients with TLE.

METHODS

This study is a retrospective review and analysis of all cases in which patients underwent intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) with use of at least one STP depth electrode over the 10 years from January 2006 through December 2015 at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Basic clinical information was collected, including the presence of ictal auditory symptoms, electrode coverage, monitoring results, resection extent, outcomes, and complications. Additionally, cases in which the temporal lobe was primarily or secondarily involved in seizure onset and propagation were categorized based upon how rapidly epileptic activity was observed within the STP following seizure onsets: within 1 second, between 1 and 15 seconds, after 15 seconds, and not involved.

RESULTS

Fifty-two patients underwent iEEG with STP coverage, with 1 STP electrode used in 45 (86.5%) cases and 2 STP electrodes in the other cases. There were no complications related to STP electrode placement. Of 42 cases in which the temporal lobe was primarily or secondarily involved, seizure activity was recorded from the STP in 36 cases (85.7%): in 5 cases (11.9%) within 1 second, in 5 (11.9%) between 1 and 15 seconds, and in 26 (61.9%) more than 15 seconds following seizure onset. Seizure outcomes inversely correlated with rapid ictal involvement of the STP (Engel class I achieved in 25%, 67%, and 82% of patients in the above categories, respectively). All patients without ictal STP involvement achieved seizure freedom. Only 4 (11.1%) patients with STP ictal involvement reported auditory symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS

Ictal involvement of the STP is common even in the absence of auditory symptoms and can be effectively detected by the STP electrodes. These electrodes are safe to implant and provide useful prognostic information.

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Yasunori Nagahama, Lauren Allan, Daichi Nakagawa, Mario Zanaty, Robert M. Starke, Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, Robert D. Brown Jr., Colin P. Derdeyn, Enrique C. Leira, Joseph Broderick, Marc Chimowitz, James C. Torner and David Hasan

OBJECTIVE

Clinical vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) are devastating complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Several theories involving platelet activation have been postulated as potential explanations of the development of clinical vasospasm and DCI. However, the effects of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT; aspirin and clopidogrel) on clinical vasospasm and DCI have not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DAPT on clinical vasospasm and DCI in aSAH patients.

METHODS

Analysis of patients treated for aSAH during the period from July 2009 to April 2014 was performed in a single-institution retrospective study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients who underwent stent-assisted coiling or placement of flow diverters requiring DAPT (DAPT group) and patients who underwent coiling only without DAPT (control group). The frequency of symptomatic clinical vasospasm and DCI and of hemorrhagic complications was compared between the 2 groups, utilizing univariate and multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS

Of 312 aSAH patients considered for this study, 161 met the criteria for inclusion and were included in the analysis (85 patients in the DAPT group and 76 patients in the control group). The risks of clinical vasospasm (OR 0.244, CI 95% 0.097–0.615, p = 0.003) and DCI (OR 0.056, CI 95% 0.01–0.318, p = 0.001) were significantly lower in patients receiving DAPT. The rates of hemorrhagic complications associated with placement of external ventricular drains and ventriculoperitoneal shunts were similar in both groups (4% vs 2%, p = 0.9).

CONCLUSIONS

The use of DAPT was associated with a lower risk of clinical vasospasm and DCI in patients treated for aSAH, without an increased risk of hemorrhagic complications.