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Joshua D. Bernstock, James H. Mooney, Adeel Ilyas, Gustavo Chagoya, Dagoberto Estevez-Ordonez, Ahmed Ibrahim and Ichiro Nakano

Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite maximal safe resection followed by chemo- and radiotherapy. GBMs contain self-renewing, tumorigenic glioma stem cells that contribute to tumor initiation, heterogeneity, therapeutic resistance, and recurrence. Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of GBMs is also a major contributing factor to poor clinical outcomes associated with these high-grade glial tumors. Herein, the authors summarize recent discoveries and advances in the molecular and phenotypic characterization of GBMs with particular focus on ITH. In so doing, they attempt to highlight recent advances in molecular signatures/properties and metabolic alterations in an effort to clarify translational implications that may ultimately improve clinical outcomes.

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Dagoberto Estevez-Ordonez, Matthew C. Davis, Betsy Hopson, MSHA, Anastasia Arynchyna, Brandon G. Rocque, Graham Fieggen, Gail Rosseau, Godfrey Oakley, MSPM and Jeffrey P. Blount

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the greatest causes of childhood mortality and disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Global prevalence at birth is approximately 18.6 per 10,000 live births, with more than 300,000 infants with NTDs born every year. Substantial strides have been made in understanding the genetics, pathophysiology, and surgical treatment of NTDs, yet the natural history remains one of high morbidity and profound impairment of quality of life. Direct and indirect costs of care are enormous, which ensures profound inequities and disparities in the burden of disease in countries of low and moderate resources. All indices of disease burden are higher for NTDs in developing countries. The great tragedy is that the majority of NTDs can be prevented with folate fortification of commercially produced food. Unequivocal evidence of the effectiveness of folate to reduce the incidence of NTDs has existed for more than 25 years. Yet, the most comprehensive surveys of effectiveness of implementation strategies show that more than 100 countries fail to fortify, and consequently only 13% of folate-preventable spina bifida is actually prevented. Neurosurgeons harbor a disproportionate, central, and fundamental role in the management of NTDs and enjoy high standing in society. No organized group in medicine can speak as authoritatively or convincingly. As a result, neurosurgeons and organized neurosurgery harbor disproportionate potential to advocate for more comprehensive folate fortification, and thereby prevent the most common and severe birth defect to impact the human nervous system. Assertive, proactive, informed advocacy for folate fortification should be a central and integral part of the neurosurgical approach to NTDs. Only by making the prevention of dysraphism a priority can we best address the inequities often observed worldwide.