Changes in the thoracolumbar angle (TLA) would play a pivotal role in the reciprocal changes following spine realignment surgery, thereby leading to the development of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). This study aimed to investigate the association between TLA and the development of PJK following adult spinal deformity surgery.
A total of 107 patients were divided into PJK+ and PJK− groups according to the development of PJK within 12 months after surgery. The TLA and spinopelvic radiological parameters were compared between the PJK+ and PJK− groups. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the risk factors for PJK. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the regression models were used to investigate the cutoff values of significant parameters needed so that PJK would not occur.
The change in TLA (ΔTLA) in the PJK+ group was significantly larger than in the PJK− group (6.7° ± 7.9° and 2.2° ± 8.1°, respectively; p = 0.006). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, postoperative pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis, and ΔTLA were significant risk factors for PJK. The risk of developing PJK was higher when the postoperative pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis was < 5.2 and the ΔTLA was > 3.58°.
The present study highlights the thinking that extensive correction of TLA and lumbar lordosis should be avoided in patients with adult spinal deformity. Overcorrection of TLA of > 3.58° could result in higher odds of PJK.