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Da Zou, Weishi Li, Fei Xu and Guohong Du

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Hounsfield unit (HU) values of the S1 body to diagnose osteoporosis in patients with lumbar degenerative diseases.

METHODS

The records of 316 patients of ages ≥ 50 years and requiring surgery for lumbar degenerative diseases were reviewed. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the S1 body and L1 was measured in HU with preoperative lumbar CT. Circular regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on midaxial and midsagittal images of the S1 body. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the criterion of L1 HU ≤ 110 HU were used to diagnose osteoporosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the use of HUs of the S1 body to diagnose osteoporosis.

RESULTS

The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of measuring HU of the S1 body was excellent with intraclass correlation coefficients over 0.8 (p < 0.001). The correlation between HUs of the S1 body and average T-score of L1–4 was significant with Pearson correlation coefficients ≥ 0.60 (p < 0.001). The AUCs for using HUs of the S1 body to diagnose osteoporosis were 0.86 and 0.88 for axial HU and sagittal HU, respectively (p < 0.001). The HU thresholds with balanced sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing osteoporosis were 202 HU for axial HU (sensitivity: 76%; specificity: 76%) and 185 HU for sagittal HU (sensitivity: 80%; specificity: 80%).

CONCLUSIONS

Both sagittal and axial HUs of the S1 body are useful tools for assessing BMD and diagnosing osteoporosis. Measuring HUs of the S1 body preoperatively from lumbar CT may help with surgical planning for patients with lumbar degenerative diseases.

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Da Zou, Aikeremujiang Muheremu, Zhuoran Sun, Woquan Zhong, Shuai Jiang and Weishi Li

OBJECTIVE

The authors investigated the relation between Hounsfield unit (HU) values measured on CT and the risk of pedicle screw loosening in patients who underwent lumbar pedicle screw fixation for degenerative lumbar spine disease.

METHODS

Patients who were treated with lumbar pedicle screw fixation between July 2011 and December 2015 at the authors’ department were reviewed. Age, sex, BMI, smoking and diabetes histories, range of fixation, and fusion method were recorded as the basic patient information. The HU values for lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) for the L1, L2, L3, and L4 vertebra were measured on CT scans. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent influencing factors of pedicle screw loosening.

RESULTS

A total of 503 patients were included in the final analysis. The pedicle screw loosening rate at the 12-month follow-up was 30.0% (151 of 503 patients). There were no significant differences in sex, BMI, or histories of smoking and diabetes between the patients with (loosening group) and those without (nonloosening group) screw loosening (p > 0.05). The mean HU value of L1–4 was lower in the loosening group than the nonloosening group (106.3 ± 33.9 vs 132.6 ± 42.9, p < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, being male (OR 2.065; 95% CI 1.242–3.433), HU value (OR 0.977; 95% CI 0.970–0.985), length of fixation (OR 3.616; 95% CI 2.617–4.996), and fixation to S1 (OR 1.699; 95% CI 1.039–2.777) were the independent influencing factors for screw loosening.

CONCLUSIONS

HU value measured on CT was an independent predictor for pedicle screw loosening, and lower HU value was significantly correlated with higher risk of screw loosening.