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Kai-Ming G. Fu, Justin S. Smith, David W. Polly Jr., Christopher P. Ames, Sigurd H. Berven, Joseph H. Perra, Steven D. Glassman, Richard E. McCarthy, D. Raymond Knapp Jr., Christopher I. Shaffrey and Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality Committee

Object

Currently, few studies regarding morbidity and mortality associated with operative treatment of spinal disorders in children are available to guide the surgeon. This study provides more detailed morbidity and mortality data with an analysis of 23,918 pediatric cases reported in the multicenter, multisurgeon Scoliosis Research Society morbidity and mortality database.

Methods

The Scoliosis Research Society morbidity and mortality database was queried for the years from 2004 to 2007. The inclusion criterion was age 18 years or younger. Cases were categorized by operation type and diagnosis. Details on the surgical approach, use of neurophysiological monitoring, and type of instrumentation were recorded. Major perioperative complications and deaths were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-square testing, with a p value < 0.05 considered significant.

Results

A total of 23,918 patients were included. The mean age was 13 ± 3.6 years (± SD). Spinal pathology included the following: scoliosis (in 19,642 patients), kyphosis (in 1455), spondylolisthesis (in 748), trauma (in 478), and other (in 1595 patients). The overall complication rate was 8.5%. Major complications included wound infections (2.7%), new neurological deficits (1.4%), implant-related complications (1.6%), and hematomas (0.4%). The most common medical complications were respiratory related (0.9%). Morbidity rates differed based on pathology, with patients undergoing treatment for kyphosis and spondylolisthesis having higher overall rates of morbidity (14.7% and 9.6%, respectively). Patients undergoing revision procedures (2034) or corrective osteotomies (2787) were more likely to suffer a complication or new neurological deficit. The majority of these deficits improved at least partially. Thirty-one deaths were reported for an overall rate of 1.3 per 1000. Respiratory complications were the most common cause of mortality (13 cases). Twenty-six of the deaths occurred in children undergoing scoliosis correction.

Conclusions

Spinal surgery in children is associated with a range of complications depending on the type of operation. Mortality rates for all indications and operations were low. Patients undergoing more aggressive corrective procedures for deformity are more likely to suffer complications and new neurological deficits.

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Kai-Ming G. Fu, Justin S. Smith, David W. Polly Jr., Christopher P. Ames, Sigurd H. Berven, Joseph H. Perra, Richard E. McCarthy, D. Raymond Knapp Jr. and Christopher I. Shaffrey

Object

Patients with varied medical comorbidities often present with spinal pathology for which operative intervention is potentially indicated, but few studies have examined risk stratification in determining morbidity and mortality rates associated with the operative treatment of spinal disorders. This study provides an analysis of morbidity and mortality data associated with 22,857 cases reported in the multicenter, multisurgeon Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality database stratified by American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, a commonly used system to describe preoperative physical status and to predict operative morbidity.

Methods

The Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality database was queried for the year 2007, the year in which ASA data were collected. Inclusion criterion was a reported ASA grade. Cases were categorized by operation type and disease process. Details on the surgical approach and type of instrumentation were recorded. Major perioperative complications and deaths were evaluated. Two large subgroups—patients with adult degenerative lumbar disease and patients with major deformity—were also analyzed separately. Statistical analyses were performed with the chi-square test.

Results

The population studied comprised 22,857 patients. Spinal disease included degenerative disease (9409 cases), scoliosis (6782 cases), spondylolisthesis (2144 cases), trauma (1314 cases), kyphosis (831 cases), and other (2377 cases). The overall complication rate was 8.4%. Complication rates for ASA Grades 1 through 5 were 5.4%, 9.0%, 14.4%, 20.3%, and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.001). In patients undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar diseases and major adult deformity, similarly increasing rates of morbidity were found in higher-grade patients. The mortality rate was also higher in higher-grade patients. The incidence of major complications, including wound infections, hematomas, respiratory problems, and thromboembolic events, was also greater in patients with higher ASA grades.

Conclusions

Patients with higher ASA grades undergoing spinal surgery had significantly higher rates of morbidity than those with lower ASA grades. Given the common application of the ASA system to surgical patients, this grade may prove helpful for surgical decision making and preoperative counseling with regard to risks of morbidity and mortality.

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Charles A. Sansur, Davis L. Reames, Justin S. Smith, D. Kojo Hamilton, Sigurd H. Berven, Paul A. Broadstone, Theodore J. Choma, Michael James Goytan, Hilali H. Noordeen, Dennis Raymond Knapp Jr., Robert A. Hart, Reinhard D. Zeller, William F. Donaldson III, David W. Polly Jr., Joseph H. Perra, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei and Christopher I. Shaffrey

Object

This is a retrospective review of 10,242 adults with degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) from the morbidity and mortality (M&M) index of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS). This database was reviewed to assess complication incidence, and to identify factors that were associated with increased complication rates.

Methods

The SRS M&M database was queried to identify cases of DS and IS treated between 2004 and 2007. Complications were identified and analyzed based on age, surgical approach, spondylolisthesis type/grade, and history of previous surgery. Age was stratified into 2 categories: > 65 years and ≤ 65 years. Surgical approach was stratified into the following categories: decompression without fusion, anterior, anterior/posterior, posterior without instrumentation, posterior with instrumentation, and interbody fusion. Spondylolisthesis grades were divided into low-grade (Meyerding I and II) versus high-grade (Meyerding III, IV, and V) groups. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.

Results

In the 10,242 cases of DS and IS reported, there were 945 complications (9.2%) in 813 patients (7.9%). The most common complications were dural tears, wound infections, implant complications, and neurological complications (range 0.7%–2.1%). The mortality rate was 0.1%. Diagnosis of DS had a significantly higher complication rate (8.5%) when compared with IS (6.6%; p = 0.002). High-grade spondylolisthesis correlated strongly with a higher complication rate (22.9% vs 8.3%, p < 0.0001). Age > 65 years was associated with a significantly higher complication rate (p = 0.02). History of previous surgery and surgical approach were not significantly associated with higher complication rates. On multivariate analysis, only the grade of spondylolisthesis (low vs high) was in the final best-fit model of factors associated with the occurrence of complications (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

The rate of total complications for treatment of DS and IS in this series was 9.2%. The total percentage of patients with complications was 7.9%. On univariate analysis, the complication rate was significantly higher in patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis, a diagnosis of DS, and in older patients. Surgical approach and history of previous surgery were not significantly correlated with increased complication rates. On multivariate analysis, only the grade of spondylolisthesis was significantly associated with the occurrence of complications.

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Kai-Ming G. Fu, Justin S. Smith, David W. Polly Jr., Joseph H. Perra, Charles A. Sansur, Sigurd H. Berven, Paul A. Broadstone, Theodore J. Choma, Michael J. Goytan, Hilali H. Noordeen, D. Raymond Knapp Jr., Robert A. Hart, Reinhard D. Zeller, William F. Donaldson III, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei and Christopher I. Shaffrey

Object

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prospectively collected Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) database to assess the incidences of morbidity and mortality (M&M) in the operative treatment of degenerative lumbar stenosis, one of the most common procedures performed by spine surgeons.

Methods

All patients who underwent surgical treatment for degenerative lumbar stenosis between 2004 and 2007 were identified from the SRS M&M database. Inclusion criteria for analysis included an age ≥ 21 years and no history of lumbar surgery. Patients were treated with either decompression alone or decompression with concomitant fusion. Statistical comparisons were performed using a 2-sided Fisher exact test.

Results

Of the 10,329 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 6609 (64%) were treated with decompression alone, and 3720 (36%) were treated with decompression and fusion. Among those who underwent fusion, instrumentation was placed in 3377 (91%). The overall mean patient age was 63 ± 13 years (range 21–96 years). Seven hundred nineteen complications (7.0%), including 13 deaths (0.1%), were identified. New neurological deficits were reported in 0.6% of patients. Deaths were related to cardiac (4 cases), respiratory (5 cases), pulmonary embolus (2 cases), and sepsis (1 case) etiologies, and a perforated gastric ulcer (1 case). Complication rates did not differ based on patient age or whether fusion was performed. Minimally invasive procedures were associated with fewer complications and fewer new neurological deficits (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively).

Conclusions

The results from this analysis of the SRS M&M database provide surgeons with useful information for preoperative counseling of patients contemplating surgical intervention for symptomatic degenerative lumbar stenosis.