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Ron Ron Cheng, Ramin Eskandari, Cynthia T. Welsh and Abhay K. Varma

Peripheral nerve involvement may be the first sign of systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, a rare disease. Physical examination and electrodiagnostic testing are the mainstays of peripheral neuropathy evaluation at presentation. Sural nerve biopsy is performed in conjunction with serum and urine protein evaluation to differentiate between focal and systemic disease. Systemic disease is treated with a combination of chemotherapy, steroids, and stem cell transplantation. Isolated peripheral nerve disease is extremely rare.

The authors here report the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with progressive right upper-extremity weakness due to right radial neuropathy discovered upon electrodiagnostic testing. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) revealed a focal lesion within the right radial nerve. She underwent radial nerve exploration and excision of an intraneural mass consisting of amyloid on histopathology, with mass spectrometry analysis diagnostic for AL amyloidosis. Noninvasive testing and clinical history did not suggest systemic involvement. This unique case of isolated peripheral nerve AL amyloidosis in the absence of signs and symptoms of systemic disease is described, and the literature demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement in AL amyloidosis is reviewed.

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Jacob A. Kahn, Jeffrey T. Waltz, Ramin M. Eskandari, Cynthia T. Welsh and Michael U. Antonucci

The authors report an unusual presentation of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), a non–Langerhans cell histiocytosis of infancy and early childhood. This entity typically presents as a cutaneous head or neck nodule but can manifest with more systemic involvement including in the central nervous system. However, currently there is limited information regarding specific imaging features differentiating JXG from other neuropathological entities, with diagnosis typically made only after tissue sampling. The authors reviewed the initial images of a young patient with shunt-treated hydrocephalus and enlarging, chronic, extraaxial processes presumed to reflect subdural collections from overshunting, and they examine the operative discovery of a mass lesion that was pathologically proven to be JXG. Their results incorporate the important associated histological and advanced imaging features, including previously unreported metabolic activity on FDG PET. Ultimately, the case underscores the need to consider JXG in differential diagnoses of pediatric intracranial masses and highlights the potential role of PET in the initial diagnosis and response to treatment.

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Guilherme B. F. Porto, Cynthia T. Welsh, M. Imran Chaudry and Ramin Eskandari

Cystic angiomatosis is a rare bone condition with complex presentation and difficult treatment. Current management strategies have poorly tolerated side effects and a low likelihood of disease eradication. The control of calvarial lesions that are symptomatic usually involves surgical excision and subsequent cranioplasty. This paradigm can present with a risk of morbidity and mortality depending on the anatomy of the lesion. Here, the authors present a novel approach to a difficult-to-treat occipital calvarial lesion directly overlying the transverse sinus, performing a small, partial-thickness craniectomy and alcohol sclerotherapy in a combined neurosurgery-neuroendovascular approach. At 3 years after treatment, the authors noted a complete, encouraging radiographic and clinical outcome.