Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 32 items for

  • Author or Editor: Curtis J. Rozzelle x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Thomas J. Gruber and Curtis J. Rozzelle

The authors describe the previously unreported occurrence of thoracolumbar subdural hematoma (SDH) resulting from nonaccidental trauma and emphasize the need for a complete and thorough neurological, physical, and radiological examination in all cases of suspected nonaccidental trauma.

A 4-month-old male infant presented to the authors' Level 1 pediatric trauma center in respiratory arrest. According to the family, he had been previously healthy with a 1-day history of fussiness and irritability. While with one of the parents, the patient was noted to be apneic and had been shaken in 2 separate episodes in an attempt to stimulate respiration. Emergency services personnel intubated the child's trachea and transported him to the hospital. On arrival in the emergency department, the child was unresponsive and exhibited signs of myelopathy. A CT scan of his head demonstrated SDH and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated an SDH dorsal to the spinal cord with some mass effect on the conus medullaris and descending nerve roots. The patient underwent emergency T-12 to L-3 laminotomies, evacuation of the hematoma, and laminoplasty.

The rigid nature of the rib cage provides a point of fixation around which the thoracolumbar spine can hyperflex and hyperextend when shaken, resulting in severe injury to the bony, vascular, and neural elements of the spine.

Restricted access

Matthew R. Fusco, Todd C. Hankinson and Curtis J. Rozzelle

Occipitoatlantoaxial rotatory fixation (OAARF) is a rare condition involving fixed rotational subluxation of the atlas in relation to both the occiput and axis. Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) appears to precede OAARF in most cases, as untreated AARF may cause compensatory counter-rotation and occipitoaxial fixation at an apparently neutral head position. We report a case of OAARF in an 8-year-old girl with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Cervical imaging demonstrated slight rightward rotation of the occiput at 7.63° in relation to C-2 and significant rightward rotation of C-1 at 65.90° in relation to the occiput and at 73.53° in relation to C-2. An attempt at closed reduction with halo traction was unsuccessful. Definitive treatment included open reduction, C-1 laminectomy, and occipitocervical internal fixation and fusion.

Restricted access

Curtis J. Rozzelle, Casey Madura and Ron W. Reeder

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization for the treatment of neonatal and infant hydrocephalus has gained popularity in the past decade. Identifying treatment failure is critically important. Results of a pilot study of 2 novel imaging markers seen on fast-sequence T2-weighted axial MRI showed potential clinical utility. However, the reliability of multiple raters detecting these markers must be established before a multicenter validation study can be performed.

METHODS

Two sets of de-identified single-shot T2-weighted turbo spin-echo axial images were prepared from scans of patients before and after they underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization between March 2013 and January 2016. The first set showed the lateral and third ventricles for visualization of turbulent CSF dynamics, and the second set showed the lateral ventricular atria for choroid plexus glomus detection. Three raters (Group 1) received written instructions before evaluating each image set once and then again 1 week later. Another 8 raters (Group 2) evaluated both image sets after oral instruction and group training on a pretest image set. Fleiss’ kappa coefficients with 95% CIs were calculated for intrarater and interrater reliability in Group 1 and interrater reliability in Group 2.

RESULTS

Intrarater reliability kappa coefficients for Group 1 were ≥ 0.74 for turbulence and ≥ 0.80 for choroid plexus; their interrater kappa coefficients at the initial assessment were 0.50 (95% CI 0.37–0.62) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.43–0.69), respectively. The Group 2 interrater kappa scores were 0.82 (95% CI 0.78–0.86) for turbulence and 0.62 (95% CI 0.58–0.66) for choroid plexus.

CONCLUSIONS

With minimal training, intrarater reliability on visualization of turbulence and the choroid plexus was substantial, but interrater reliability was only moderate. After modestly increasing training, interrater reliability improved to near perfect and to substantial reliability for visualization of turbulence and choroid plexus, respectively. Given adequately trained observers, a multicenter investigation into the validity and potential clinical utility of the imaging markers seems feasible.

Restricted access

Curtis J. Rozzelle, Jody Leonardo and Veetai Li

Object

Implantation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting devices is associated with a 5–15% risk of infection as cited in contemporary pediatric neurosurgical literature. Shunt infections typically require complete removal of the device and prolonged antibiotic treatment followed by shunt replacement. Moreover, shunt infections are commonly associated with prolonged hospital stays, potential comorbidity, and the increased risk of neurological compromise due to ventriculitis or surgical complications. The authors prospectively evaluated the incidence of CSF shunt infection following shunt procedures performed using either antimicrobial suture (AMS) or conventional suture.

Methods

In a single-center, prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, the authors enrolled 61 patients, among whom 84 CSF shunt procedures were performed over 21 months. Randomization to the study (AMS) or control (placebo) group was stratified to minimize the effect of known shunt infection risk factors on the findings. Antibacterial shunt components were not used. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of shunt infection within 6 months of surgery.

Results

The shunt infection rate in the study group was 2 (4.3%) of 46 procedures and 8 (21%) of 38 procedures in the control group (p = 0.038). There were no statistically significant differences in shunt infection risk factors between the groups (procedure type and time, age < 6 months, weight < 4 kg, recent history of shunt infection). No suture-related adverse events were reported in either group.

Conclusions

These results support the suggestion that the use of AMS for CSF shunt surgery wound closure is safe, effective, and may be associated with a reduced risk of postoperative shunt infection. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm this association.

Restricted access

Jacob R. Lepard, Beverly C. Walters and Curtis J. Rozzelle

OBJECTIVE

Neurosurgery, and particularly spine surgery, is among the most highly litigated medical specialties in the US, rendering the current malpractice climate of primary importance to spine surgeons nationwide. One of the primary methods of tort reform in the civil justice system is malpractice damage capitation (or “caps”); however, its efficacy is widely debated. The purpose of this article is to serve as a review for the practicing neurosurgeon, with particular emphasis on short- and long-term effects of damage caps and on the current debate regarding their utility, based on a systematic review of the literature.

METHODS

The Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic review of observational studies were used in the design of the study. Multiple medical and legal online databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and JSTOR) were queried using the key words “malpractice” and “damage capitation” for articles from 2000 to 2014. A total of 96 abstracts were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of these, 22 articles were reviewed in full and another 15 were excluded for study design or poor quality of data. Five more studies were added after cross-checking the bibliographies of the included articles. The resulting 12 articles were evaluated; relevant data were extracted using a standardized metric.

RESULTS

Five studies were found showing varying effects of capitation on physician availability, with only 1 of these specifically showing increased availability of neurosurgery and elective spine coverage in states with capitation. Four studies demonstrated that capitation overall succeeds in decreasing jury awards and frequency of claims filed. Last, 3 studies were found showing an overall decrease in malpractice premiums for states that passed damage capitation.

CONCLUSIONS

There is evidence in the literature showing that total and noneconomic damage capitation has the potential to improve the practice environment for neurosurgeons nationwide. Additionally, there are other factors that affect malpractice premium rates, such as the investment markets, which are not affected by these laws. All of these are important for spine surgeons to consider and be aware of in advocating for appropriate reform measures in their states.

Restricted access

John Fahrbach and Curtis J. Rozzelle

✓The authors present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a history of myelomeningocele repair, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement for hydrocephalus, and shaken baby syndrome who presented in a hypernatremic state as a result of dehydration. At the time of presentation, the patient had experienced a 1-week-long history of diarrhea associated with antibiotic agents used to treat a coexisting pyelonephritis. On admission, the patient exhibited signs and symptoms of dehydration and was discovered to have profound hypernatremia with a serum sodium level of 180 mmol/L. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the head revealed ventricular enlargement compared with previous imaging findings. A shunt tap revealed intracranial hypotension with good proximal flow. The child was treated for her hyper-natremic state, and her neurological condition returned to baseline level. Subsequent CT scans of the head demonstrated a return of the ventricular system to its premorbid size.

On the basis of the initial radiographic presentation and subsequent evaluation, the authors hypothesize that the ventricular enlargement was a result of hypernatremia. The signs and symptoms were similar to those found in patients with a VP shunt obstruction; however, a shunt tap revealed intracranial hypotension and excellent proximal flow. To the authors’ knowledge, there has not been a radiographically documented case of reversible ventricular enlargement associated with hypernatremia.

Restricted access

Andrew B. Boucher and Joshua J. Chern

Full access

Jonathan Pindrik, Brandon G. Rocque, Anastasia A. Arynchyna, James M. Johnston and Curtis J. Rozzelle

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with choroid plexus (CP) cauterization (CPC) represents a viable treatment option for congenital hydrocephalus in infants younger than 2 years. Imaging studies complement clinical data in the evaluation of treatment success or failure. The objectives of this study were to investigate novel radiographic markers—cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) turbulence and CP visualization—and their ability to reflect or predict clinical outcomes following ETV/CPC.

METHODS

Hydrocephalic patients younger than 2 years who were initially treated by ETV/CPC at the senior authors' institution between March 2013 and February 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data, as well as the visualization of CSF turbulence and CP on pre- and postoperative fast-sequence MRI, were recorded. Radiographic images were reviewed by a blinded observer based on specific criteria for the visualization of CSF turbulence and CP. Data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics, including Fisher's exact test for comparisons. The research team obtained appropriate institutional review board approval for this study, without the need for informed consent.

RESULTS

Among the 32 patients (53% male and 47% female) studied, 18 of 32 (56%) responded favorably to initial or repeat ETV/CPC, with 13 of 32 (41%) patients requiring 1 surgery. Of the 19 (59%) patients whose initial ETV/CPC failed, 8 of 19 (42%) patients underwent repeat ETV/CPC, with 5 of 8 (63%) patients responding favorably. Radiographic CSF turbulence appeared more frequently following ETV/CPC failure than after ETV/CPC success (55% vs 18%, respectively; p = 0.02). The sensitivity and specificity of CSF turbulence as a radiographic marker for ETV/CPC failure were 80% and 58%, respectively. The radiographic depiction of CP disappearance following ETV/CPC from pre- to postoperative imaging occurred in 20 of 30 patients (67%). Among the patients who responded unsuccessfully to ETV/CPC and ultimately required secondary shunt insertion, 71% (10 of 14 patients) demonstrated CP persistence on postoperative imaging. In contrast, 6% (1 of 18) of patients who were treated successfully by ETV/CPC demonstrated the presence of CP on follow-up imaging. This difference reached statistical significance (p = 0.0001). The visualization of CP persistence despite ETV/CPC reflected treatment failure with 91% sensitivity and 81% specificity. The sensitivity of either or both radiographic markers to suggest ETV/CPC failure was 77%, while their specificity (both markers absent, thereby indicating ETV/CPC success) was 81%.

CONCLUSIONS

Radiographic markers correlate with clinical outcomes following the treatment of infantile hydrocephalus with ETV/CPC. Specifically, CSF turbulence may indicate ongoing pathological CSF flow dynamics, while CP absence following ETV/CPC may predict shunt independence. Future studies that incorporate prospective review and formal intra- and interobserver reliability estimates may help corroborate the utility of these radiographic markers.

Restricted access

Lauren E. Rotman, James R. Hackney, Benjamin M. McGrew, Winfield S. Fisher III and Curtis J. Rozzelle

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS) is a rare developmental disorder that is phenotypically similar to Noonan syndrome and is associated with mutations in BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, and KRAS. The relationship between malignancy risk and CFCS is unclear with few cases published in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to describe the case of a patient with CFCS presenting in extremis as a result of a large intracerebral hemorrhage arising from a temporal bone mass with histopathology most consistent with chondroblastoma and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. This is the first case to document an association between CFCS and chondroblastoma.