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Abuzer Güngör, Serhat Baydin, Erik H. Middlebrooks, Necmettin Tanriover, Cihan Isler and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.

OBJECTIVE

The relationship of the white matter tracts to the lateral ventricles is important when planning surgical approaches to the ventricles and in understanding the symptoms of hydrocephalus. The authors' aim was to explore the relationship of the white matter tracts of the cerebrum to the lateral ventricles using fiber dissection technique and MR tractography and to discuss these findings in relation to approaches to ventricular lesions.

METHODS

Forty adult human formalin-fixed cadaveric hemispheres (20 brains) and 3 whole heads were examined using fiber dissection technique. The dissections were performed from lateral to medial, medial to lateral, superior to inferior, and inferior to superior. MR tractography showing the lateral ventricles aided in the understanding of the 3D relationships of the white matter tracts with the lateral ventricles.

RESULTS

The relationship between the lateral ventricles and the superior longitudinal I, II, and III, arcuate, vertical occipital, middle longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, inferior frontooccipital, uncinate, sledge runner, and lingular amygdaloidal fasciculi; and the anterior commissure fibers, optic radiations, internal capsule, corona radiata, thalamic radiations, cingulum, corpus callosum, fornix, caudate nucleus, thalamus, stria terminalis, and stria medullaris thalami were defined anatomically and radiologically. These fibers and structures have a consistent relationship to the lateral ventricles.

CONCLUSIONS

Knowledge of the relationship of the white matter tracts of the cerebrum to the lateral ventricles should aid in planning more accurate surgery for lesions within the lateral ventricles.

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Fatma Ozlen, Ali Metin Kafadar, Bashar Abuzayed, Mustafa Onur Ulu, Cihan Isler, Reza Dashti and Pamir Erdincler

Object

The authors present their experience in the surgical treatment of metopic synostosis by orbital bandeau remodeling and frontal bone rotation. The pitfalls and advantages of the surgical technique are discussed, along with the long-term clinical results in 48 consecutive cases.

Methods

Forty-eight consecutive patients in whom trigonocephaly was diagnosed between 1990 and 2009 were treated with frontal bone rotation and frontoorbital bandeau remodeling. Of these patients, 38 (79%) were boys and 10 (21%) were girls. The age at the time of surgical treatment ranged between 4 and 42 months (mean ± SD 11.4 ± 8.7 months). The average follow-up period was 5.5 ± 4.2 years (range 5 months–19 years). The preoperative and latest postoperative photographs of the patients were evaluated for the following features: 1) shape of the forehead; 2) hypotelorism; and 3) temporal depression. Scores of 0, 1, or 2 were assigned for each item: 0 was normal, 1 meant moderate deformity, and 2 denoted severe deformity.

Results

In the early postoperative period, no complications were documented. The average hospitalization period was 4 days. Follow-up radiographs or 3D CT scans were obtained at regular intervals. The mean preoperative scores for the evaluated items were 1.38 ± 0.49 for the shape of the forehead, 1.33 ± 0.48 for hypotelorism, and 1.7 ± 0.46 for the temporal depression. The mean postoperative scores were 0.06 ± 0.24 for the shape of the forehead, 0.21 ± 0.4 for hypotelorism, and 0.67 ± 0.48 for the temporal depression. Overall, the total preoperative score dropped from 4.4 to 0.93 postoperatively (p < 0.05). All the patients were contented with the cosmetic results.

Conclusions

Early detection and treatment of metopic suture synostosis has a significant, favorable influence on the outcomes. Good understanding of the structural abnormality and the pathophysiological mechanisms of the possible complications is very important for performing proper surgical reconstruction.

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Abuzer Güngör, Şevki Serhat Baydın, Vanessa M. Holanda, Erik H. Middlebrooks, Cihan Isler, Bekir Tugcu, Kelly Foote and Necmettin Tanriover

OBJECTIVE

Despite the extensive use of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target, unveiling the extensive functional connectivity of the nucleus, relating its structural connectivity to the stimulation-induced adverse effects, and thus optimizing the STN targeting still remain challenging. Mastering the 3D anatomy of the STN region should be the fundamental goal to achieve ideal surgical results, due to the deep-seated and obscure position of the nucleus, variable shape and relatively small size, oblique orientation, and extensive structural connectivity. In the present study, the authors aimed to delineate the 3D anatomy of the STN and unveil the complex relationship between the anatomical structures within the STN region using fiber dissection technique, 3D reconstructions of high-resolution MRI, and fiber tracking using diffusion tractography utilizing a generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) model.

METHODS

Fiber dissection was performed in 20 hemispheres and 3 cadaveric heads using the Klingler method. Fiber dissections of the brain were performed from all orientations in a stepwise manner to reveal the 3D anatomy of the STN. In addition, 3 brains were cut into 5-mm coronal, axial, and sagittal slices to show the sectional anatomy. GQI data were also used to elucidate the connections among hubs within the STN region.

RESULTS

The study correlated the results of STN fiber dissection with those of 3D MRI reconstruction and tractography using neuronavigation. A 3D terrain model of the subthalamic area encircling the STN was built to clarify its anatomical relations with the putamen, globus pallidus internus, globus pallidus externus, internal capsule, caudate nucleus laterally, substantia nigra inferiorly, zona incerta superiorly, and red nucleus medially. The authors also describe the relationship of the medial lemniscus, oculomotor nerve fibers, and the medial forebrain bundle with the STN using tractography with a 3D STN model.

CONCLUSIONS

This study examines the complex 3D anatomy of the STN and peri-subthalamic area. In comparison with previous clinical data on STN targeting, the results of this study promise further understanding of the structural connections of the STN, the exact location of the fiber compositions within the region, and clinical applications such as stimulation-induced adverse effects during DBS targeting.

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Necmettin Tanriover, Baris Kucukyuruk, Mustafa Onur Ulu, Cihan Isler, Bulent Sam, Bashar Abuzayed, Mustafa Uzan, Halil Ak and Saffet Tuzgen

Object

The object of this study was to delineate the microsurgical anatomy of the cisternal segment of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA). The authors also propose a new classification of this segment on the basis of its complicated course within the carotid and crural cisterns in relation to important neurovascular structures, and the site of origin, course, and areas of supply of perforating arteries.

Methods

Thirty cadaveric cerebral hemispheres injected with colored latex were dissected under surgical magnification to view the cisternal segment of the AChA and its perforators. Fiber dissections using the Klingler technique were performed in two additional latex injected hemispheres to follow the penetration points, courses, and terminal areas of supply of perforating branches that arise from the cisternal segment of the AChA.

Results

The cisternal segment of the AChA was divided into pre- and postoptic parts that meet at the artery's genu, the most medial extension point of the cisternal segment where the artery makes an abrupt turn after passing under the optic tract. The preoptic part of the AChA extended from its origin at the inferomedial side of the internal carotid artery to the artery's genu, which is commonly located just inferomedial to the initial part of the optic tract. The postoptic part coursed within the crural cistern and extended from the genu to the inferior choroidal point. The genu of the AChA was 8 mm medial to the artery's origin and was located medial to the optic tract in 13% of the hemispheres. The postoptic part was longer than the preoptic part in all hemispheres and had more perforating arteries supplying critical deep structures (preoptic 3.4 per hemisphere vs postoptic 4.6 per hemisphere), and these results were statistically significant (p = 0.01). At the preoptic part, perforating arteries arose from the superolateral portion of the artery and coursed laterally; at the postoptic part, perforators arose from the inferomedial portion of the artery and coursed medially. Perforating arteries from both segments passed most commonly to the optic tract, followed by the anterior segment and apex of uncus in the preoptic part and the cerebral peduncle in the postoptic part.

Conclusions

Both parts of the cisternal segment of the AChA come into surgical view during surgeries for different pathologies in and around the perimesencephalic cisterns. However, attending to the artery's genu and defining pre- and postoptic parts during surgery may help the surgeon locate the origin and eventual course of these perforators, and even estimate the terminal areas of supply of most of the perforating arteries. The proposed classification system can prove helpful in planning any operative procedure along the crural cistern and may reduce the probability of inadvertent injury to perforating branches of the cisternal segment.

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Christos Koutsarnakis, Faidon Liakos, Aristotelis V. Kalyvas, Spyros Komaitis and George Stranjalis