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Xiaolei Hao, Ruie Feng, Yalan Bi, Yuhan Liu, Chunde Li, Tao Lu and Yongji Tian

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non–Langerhans cell form of histiocytosis that can affect the central nervous system. ECD predominantly affects adults, and only a few pediatric cases have been reported. The co-occurrence of ECD and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is exceedingly rare. An 11-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with LCH 7 years previously, presented with multiple giant intracranial lesions. At the time of his initial diagnosis, only one intracranial lesion was observed, and it began to enlarge. Currently, up to 7 intracranial lesions can be observed in this patient. However, the diagnosis of ECD was not confirmed until this most recent open resection. The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in both LCH and ECD lesions. Dabrafenib therapy exhibited dramatic efficacy in this pediatric patient. This case represents the first successful application of dabrafenib in a pediatric patient with intracranial ECD lesions as well as mixed ECD and LCH. In this article, the authors describe the intricate diagnosis and treatment processes in this patient. Recent studies regarding treatment with BRAF inhibitors for neurological involvement in mixed ECD and LCH are also reviewed.

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Chun-de Li, Shi-qi Luo, Jian Gong, Zhen-yu Ma, Ge Jia, Yu-qi Zhang and Jie-fei Li

Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a rare condition that often manifests as central precocious puberty (CPP). There is a lack of information available concerning the long-term effectiveness of surgery for the treatment of CPP due to HH. Here the authors describe 3 cases of CPP due to HH, with a follow-up ranging from 9 to 11 years after surgery. Three girls experienced breast growth and menses at 5–18 months of age and 5–36 months of age, respectively. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 6.5 mIU/ml, 4.8–5.9 mIU/ml, and 47.9–133.0 pg/ml, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that CPP was caused by HH. Lesions were resected using a right pterional approach. After surgery, endocrine hormone concentrations were normalized, breasts shrunk, and menses ceased in each patient. Moreover, all of them subsequently developed normally and experienced age-appropriate onset of puberty. Each patient's height and weight were normal at the most recent follow-up (9–11 years after surgery), and none had experienced learning difficulties. Central precocious puberty due to HH can be successfully treated with resection. In the 3 cases presented, this approach was associated with both short- and long-term efficacy.

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Xiaolei Hao, Ruie Feng, Yalan Bi, Yuhan Liu, Chunde Li, Tao Lu and Yongji Tian

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non–Langerhans cell form of histiocytosis that can affect the central nervous system. ECD predominantly affects adults, and only a few pediatric cases have been reported. The co-occurrence of ECD and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is exceedingly rare. An 11-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with LCH 7 years previously, presented with multiple giant intracranial lesions. At the time of his initial diagnosis, only one intracranial lesion was observed, and it began to enlarge. Currently, up to 7 intracranial lesions can be observed in this patient. However, the diagnosis of ECD was not confirmed until this most recent open resection. The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in both LCH and ECD lesions. Dabrafenib therapy exhibited dramatic efficacy in this pediatric patient. This case represents the first successful application of dabrafenib in a pediatric patient with intracranial ECD lesions as well as mixed ECD and LCH. In this article, the authors describe the intricate diagnosis and treatment processes in this patient. Recent studies regarding treatment with BRAF inhibitors for neurological involvement in mixed ECD and LCH are also reviewed.