Radiosurgery for intracranial hemangiopericytomas: outcomes after initial and repeat Gamma Knife surgery
Claire Olson, Chun-Po Yen, David Schlesinger, and Jason Sheehan
Intracranial hemangiopericytoma is a rare CNS tumor that exhibits a high incidence of local recurrence and distant metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in the management of intracranial hemangiopericytomas.
In a review of the University of Virginia radiosurgery database between 1989 and 2008, the authors found recurrent or residual hemangiopericytomas after resection in 21 patients in whom radiosurgery was performed to treat 28 discrete tumors. The median age of this population was 47 years (range 31–61 years) at the time of the initial GKS. Prior treatments included embolization (6), transcranial resection (39), transsphenoidal resection (2), and fractionated radiotherapy (8). The mean prescription and maximum radiosurgical doses to the tumors were 17.0 and 40.3 Gy, respectively. Repeat radiosurgery was used to treat 13 tumors. The median follow-up period was 68 months (range 2–138 months).
At last follow-up, local tumor control was demonstrated in 47.6% of the patients (10 of 21 patients) with hemangiopericytomas. Of the 28 tumors treated, 8 decreased in size on follow-up imaging (28.6%), 5 remained unchanged (17.9%), and 15 ultimately progressed (53.6%). The progression-free survival rates were 90, 60.3, and 28.7% at 1, 3, and 5 years after initial GKS. The progression-free survival rate improved to 95, 71.5, and 71.5% at 1, 3, and 5 years after multiple GKS treatments. The 5-year survival rate after radiosurgery was 81%. Prior fractionated irradiation or radiosurgical prescription dose did not correlate with tumor control. In 4 (19%) of 21 patients extracranial metastases developed.
Radiosurgery is a reasonable treatment option for recurrent hemangiopericytomas. Long-term close clinical and imaging follow-up is necessary because of the high probability of local recurrence and distant metastases. Repeat radiosurgery may be used to treat new or recurrent hemangiopericytomas over a long follow-up course.
Gamma Knife surgery for neurocytoma
Chun Po Yen, Jason Sheehan, Greg Patterson, and Ladislau Steiner
Although considered benign tumors, neurocytomas have various biological behaviors, histological patterns, and clinical courses. In the last 15 years, fractionated radiotherapy and radiosurgery in addition to microsurgery have been used in their management. In this study, the authors present their experience using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in the treatment of these tumors.
Between 1989 and 2004, the authors performed GKS in seven patients with a total of nine neurocytomas. Three patients harbored five recurrent tumors after a gross-total resection, three had progression of previous partially resected tumors, and one had undergone a tumor biopsy only. The mean tumor volume at the time of GKS ranged from 1.4 to 19.8 cm3 (mean 6.0 cm3). A mean peripheral dose of 16 Gy was prescribed to the tumor margin with the median isodose configuration of 32.5%.
After a mean follow-up period of 60 months, four of the nine tumors treated disappeared and four shrank significantly. Because of secondary hemorrhage, an accurate tumor volume could not be determined in one. Four patients were asymptomatic during the follow-up period, and the condition of the patient who had residual hemiparesis from a previous transcortical resection of the tumor was stable. Additionally, the patient who experienced tumor hemorrhage required a shunt revision, and another patient died of sepsis due to a shunt infection.
Based on this limited experience, GKS seems to be an appropriate management alternative. It offers control over the tumor with the benefits of minimal invasiveness and low morbidity rates. Recurrence, however, is not unusual following both microsurgery and GKS. Open-ended follow-up imaging is required to detect early recurrence and determine the need for retreatment.
Gamma Knife surgery–induced meningioma
Report of two cases and review of the literature
Jason Sheehan, Chun PO Yen, and Ladislau Steiner
✓Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is a minimally invasive neurosurgical technique. During the past 30 years, radiosurgery has been performed for a number of intracranial disorders with a generally low incidence of side effects. Although radiation-induced neoplasia following radiotherapy is well documented, there are few reports of this complication following radiosurgery.
The authors are engaged in an ongoing project in which they are studying the delayed adverse effects of radiosurgical changes in 2500 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated within a 30-year period. The cases of 1333 patients treated by the senior author (L.S.) have been reviewed thus far. A subset of 288 patients in this group underwent neuroimaging and participated in clinical follow up for at least 10 years.
The authors report two cases of radiosurgically induced neoplasia. In both cases the patient was treated with GKS for an AVM. Longer than 10 years after GKS, each of the patients was found to have an incidental, uniformly enhancing, dura-based mass lesion near the site of the AVM. These lesions displayed the imaging characteristics of a meningioma. Because in both cases the lesion has displayed no evidence of a mass effect, they continue to be followed using serial neuroimaging. These are the fifth and sixth cases meeting the criteria for radiation-induced neoplasms defined by Cahan, et al., in 1998.
Although radiosurgery is generally considered quite safe, the incidence of radiation-induced neoplasms is not known. These cases and the few others detailed in the literature emphasize the need for long-term neurosurgical follow-up review in patients after radiosurgery.
Effects of intradiscal vacuum phenomenon on surgical outcome of lateral interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar disease
Chun-Po Yen, Joshua M. Beckman, Andrew C. Vivas, Konrad Bach, and Juan S. Uribe
The authors investigated whether the presence of intradiscal vacuum phenomenon (IVP) results in greater correction of disc height and restoration of segmental lordosis (SL).
A retrospective chart review was performed on every patient at the University of South Florida's Department of Neurosurgery treated with lateral lumbar interbody fusion between 2011 and 2015. From these charts, preoperative plain radiographs and CT images were reviewed for the presence of IVP. Preoperative and postoperative posterior disc height (PDH), anterior disc height (ADH), and SL were measured at disc levels with IVP and compared with those at disc levels without IVP using the t-test. Linear regression was used to evaluate the factors that predict changes in PDH, ADH, and SL.
One hundred forty patients with 247 disc levels between L-1 and L-5 were treated with lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Among all disc levels treated, the mean PDH increased from 3.69 to 6.66 mm (p = 0.011), the mean ADH increased from 5.45 to 11.53 mm (p < 0.001), and the mean SL increased from 9.59° to 14.55° (p < 0.001). Significantly increased PDH was associated with the presence of IVP, addition of pedicle screws, and lack of cage subsidence; significantly increased ADH was associated with the presence of IVP, anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) release, addition of pedicle screws, and lack of subsidence; and significantly increased SL was associated with the presence of IVP and ALL release.
IVP in patients with degenerative spinal disease remains grossly underreported. The data from the present study suggest that the presence of IVP results in increased restoration of disc height and SL.
A rare intraosseous arteriovenous malformation of the spine
Robert G. Louis Jr., Chun Po Yen, Carrie A. Mohila, James W. Mandell, and Jason Sheehan
The authors report the case of a patient with an intraosseous spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) presenting as an epidural mass lesion that was causing spinal cord compression. The 59-year-old woman had bilateral numbness, weakness, and hyperreflexia of both legs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed intermediate T1 signal and hyperintense T2 signal involving the right transverse process, bilateral pedicles, and T-5 spinous process; the lesion's epidural extension was causing severe canal compromise and cord displacement. Coil embolization was performed, and the patient underwent resection, after which preoperative symptoms improved. Histopathological analysis revealed a benign vascular proliferation consistent with an intraosseous spinal AVM. On review of the literature, the authors found this case to be the second intraosseous spinal AVM, and the first in a patient whose clinical presentation was consistent with that of a mass lesion of the bone.
Gamma Knife surgery for arteriovenous malformations in children
Chun Po Yen, Stephen J. Monteith, James H. Nguyen, Jessica Rainey, David J. Schlesinger, and Jason P. Sheehan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term imaging and clinical outcomes of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in children treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS).
Between 1989 and 2007, 200 patients with AVMs who were 18 years of age or younger were treated at the University of Virginia Health System. Excluding 14 patients who had not reached 2-year follow-up, 186 patients comprised this study. Hemorrhage was the most common presenting symptom leading to the diagnosis of AVMs (71.5%). The mean nidus volume was 3.2 cm3 at the time of GKS, and a mean prescription dose of 21.9 Gy was used.
After initial GKS, 49.5% of patients achieved total angiographic obliteration. Forty-one patients whose AVM nidi remained patent underwent additional GKS. The obliteration rate increased to 58.6% after a second or multiple GKS. Subtotal obliteration was achieved in 9 patients (4.8%). Forty-nine patients (26.3%) still had a patent residual nidus. In 19 patients (10.2%), obliteration was confirmed on MR imaging only. Ten patients had 17 hemorrhages during the follow-up period. The hemorrhage rate was 5.4% within 2 years after GKS and 0.8% between 2 and 5 years. Six patients developed neurological deficits along with the radiation-induced changes. Two patients developed asymptomatic meningiomas 10 and 12 years after GKS. After a mean clinical follow-up of 98 months, less than 4% of patients had difficulty attending school or developing a career.
Gamma Knife surgery offers a reasonable chance of obliteration of an AVM in pediatric patients. The incidence of symptomatic radiation-induced changes is relatively low; however, long-term clinical and imaging follow-up is required to identify delayed cyst formation and secondary tumors.
Gamma Knife surgery of pediatric gliomas
David Weintraub, Chun-Po Yen, Zhiyuan Xu, Jesse Savage, Brian Williams, and Jason Sheehan
While some low-grade pediatric gliomas may be cured with resection, many patients harbor tumors that cannot be completely resected safely, are difficult to access via an open surgical approach, or recur. Gamma Knife surgery may be beneficial in the treatment of these tumors.
The authors reviewed a consecutive series of 24 pediatric patients treated at the authors' institution between 1989 and 2011. All patients harbored tumors that were either surgically inaccessible or had evidence of residual or recurrent growth after resection. Progression-free survival was evaluated and correlated with clinical variables. Additional outcomes evaluated were clinical outcome, imaging response, and overall survival.
Between 1989 and 2011, 13 male and 11 female patients (median age 11 years, range 4–18 years) with gliomas were treated. Tumor pathology was pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO Grade I) in 15 patients (63%), WHO Grade II in 4 (17%), and WHO Grade III in 1 (4%). The tumor pathology was not confirmed in 4 patients (17%). The mean tumor volume at the time of treatment was 2.4 cm3. Lesions were treated with a median maximum dose of 36 Gy, median of 3 isocenters, and median marginal dose of 15 Gy.
The median duration of imaging follow-up was 74 months, and the median duration of clinical follow-up was 144 months. The tumors responded with a median decrease in volume of 71%. At last follow up, a decrease in tumor size of at least 50% was demonstrated in 18 patients (75%) and complete tumor resolution was achieved in 5 (21%). Progression-free survival at last follow-up was achieved in 20 patients (83%). Progression was documented in 4 patients (17%), with 3 patients requiring repeat resection and 1 patient dying. The initial tumor volume was significantly greater in patients with disease progression (mean volume 4.25 vs 2.0 cm3, p < 0.001). Age, tumor pathology, tumor location, previous radiation, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, symptom duration, and target dosage did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.
Gamma Knife surgery can provide good clinical control of residual or recurrent gliomas in pediatric patients. Worse outcomes in the present series were associated with larger tumor volumes at the time of treatment.
Brainstem Gliomas and Gamma Knife
Gamma Knife surgery for trigeminal schwannoma
Jason Sheehan, Chun Po Yen, Yasser Arkha, David Schlesinger, and Ladislau Steiner
Trigeminal schwannomas are rare intracranial tumors. In the past, resection and radiation therapy were the mainstays of their treatment. More recently, neurosurgeons have begun to use radiosurgery in the treatment of trigeminal schwannomas because of its successful use in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas. In this article the authors evaluate the radiological and clinical outcomes in a series of patients in whom Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) was used to treat trigeminal schwannomas.
Twenty-six patients with trigeminal schwannomas underwent GKS at the University of Virginia Lars Lek-sell Gamma Knife Center between 1989 and 2005. Five of these patients had neurofibromatosis and one patient was lost to follow up. The median tumor volume was 3.96 cm3, and the mean follow-up period was 48.5 months. The median prescription radiation dose was 15 Gy, and the median prescription isodose configuration was 50%. There was clinical improvement in 18 patients (72%), a stable lesion in four patients (16%), and worsening of the disease in three patients (12%). On imaging, the schwannomas shrank in 12 patients (48%), remained stable in 10 patients (40%), and increased in size in three patients (12%). These results were comparable for primary and adjuvant GKSs. No tumor growth following GKS was observed in the patients with neurofibromatosis.
Gamma Knife surgery affords a favorable risk-to-benefit profile for patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas. Larger studies with open-ended follow-up review will be necessary to determine the long-term results and complications of GKS in the treatment of trigeminal schwannomas.