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Ji Hoon Phi and Chun Kee Chung

Object

Surgical treatment of brain tumors in the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is a highly demanding procedure. Only a few studies describing the surgery of MTL tumors have been reported, and they have been focused on the operative techniques and immediate results of the surgery. The authors have analyzed the long-term oncological outcome in patients with MTL tumors.

Methods

Thirty-six patients with an MTL tumor were studied. The mean patient age at surgery was 32 years (range 13–62 years). The tumors were confined to the MTL (Schramm Type A) in 25 patients (69%). Extension of the tumor into the fusiform gyrus (Schramm Type C) and temporal stem (Schramm Type D) was observed in 4 and 7 patients (11 and 19%), respectively. There was a significant difference in the tumor size according to Schramm types (p = 0.001). Complete tumor resection was achieved in 26 patients (72%). All tumors were low-grade lesions except for 1 anaplastic astrocytoma.

Results

After a median follow-up period of 50.5 months, 7 patients showed progression of the disease. The actuarial progression-free survival rates were 97% in the 1st year, 84% in the 2nd year, and 80% in the 5th year. The degree of tumor resection was significantly related to the tumor control failure (p < 0.001) and malignant transformation of a low-grade tumor (p < 0.001). Univariate analyses using a Cox proportional hazards model showed that the following factors were significantly associated with a failure to control the tumor: 1) extent of the tumor (Schramm Type D; p = 0.003, relative risk [RR] 12.04); 2) size of the tumor (p = 0.033, RR 1.052/mm); 3) patient age at surgery ≥ 50 years (p = 0.007, RR 8.312); and 4) short duration of epilepsy (< 6 months; p = 0.001, RR 21.54).

Conclusions

Surgery is the principal treatment for MTL tumors, despite its technical difficulty. Complete tumor resection is strongly recommended for long-term tumor control. The MTL tumors are heterogeneous in their prognosis. Older age, short duration of epilepsy, and tumor size are all associated with poor outcome. Patients with these characteristics may have a more aggressive form of the disease than those with MTL tumors associated with chronic epilepsy.

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Soo Eon Lee, Chun Kee Chung and Tae Ahn Jahng

Object

The purpose of cervical total disc replacement (TDR) is to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment disease through motion preservation. Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a well-known complication after hip and knee arthroplasties. There are few reports regarding HO in patients undergoing cervical TDR, however; and the occurrence of HO and its effects on cervical motion have rarely been reported. Moreover, temporal progression of HO has not been fully addressed. One goal of this study involved determining the incidence of HO following cervical TDR, as identified from plain radiographs, and demonstrating the progression of HO during the follow-up period. A second goal consisted of determining whether segmental motion could be preserved and identifying the relationship between HO and clinical outcomes.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective clinical and radiological study of 28 consecutive patients who underwent cervical TDR with Mobi-C prostheses (LDR Medical) between September 2006 and October 2008. Radiological outcomes were evaluated using lateral dynamic radiographs obtained preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. The occurrence of HO was interpreted on lateral radiographs using the McAfee classification. Cervical range of motion (ROM) was also measured. The visual analog scale (VAS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were used to evaluate clinical outcome.

Results

The mean follow-up period was 21.6 ± 7.0 months, and the mean occurrence of HO was at 8.0 ± 6.6 months postoperatively. At the last follow-up, 18 (64.3%) of 28 patients had HO: Grade I, 6 patients; Grade II, 8 patients; Grade III, 3 patients; and Grade IV, 1 patient. Heterotopic ossification progression was proportional to the duration of follow-up; HO was present in 3 (10.7%) of 28 patients at 1 month; 7 (25.0%) of 28 patients at 3 months; 11 (42.3%) of 26 patients at 6 months; 15 (62.5%) of 24 patients at 12 months; and 17 (77.3%) of 22 patients at 24 months. Cervical ROM was preserved in Grades I and II HO but was restricted in Grades III and IV HO. Clinical improvement according to the VAS and NDI was not significantly correlated with the occurrence of HO.

Conclusions

The overall incidence of HO after cervical TDR was relatively high. Moreover, HO began unexpectedly to appear early after surgery. Heterotopic ossification progression was proportional to the time that had elapsed postoperatively. Grade III or IV HO can restrict the cervical ROM and may lead to spontaneous fusion; however, the occurrence of HO did not affect clinical outcome. The results of this study indicate that a high incidence of HO with the possibility of spontaneous fusion is to be expected during long-term follow-up and should be considered before performing cervical TDR.

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Ji Hoon Phi and Chun Kee Chung

Object

Surgical treatment of brain tumors in the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is a highly demanding procedure. Only a few studies describing the surgery of MTL tumors have been reported, and they have been focused on the operative techniques and immediate results of the surgery. The authors have analyzed the long-term oncological outcome in patients with MTL tumors.

Methods

Thirty-six patients with an MTL tumor were studied. The mean patient age at surgery was 32 years (range 13–62 years). The tumors were confined to the MTL (Schramm Type A) in 25 patients (69%). Extension of the tumor into the fusiform gyrus (Schramm Type C) and temporal stem (Schramm Type D) was observed in 4 and 7 patients (11 and 19%), respectively. There was a significant difference in the tumor size according to Schramm types (p = 0.001). Complete tumor resection was achieved in 26 patients (72%). All tumors were low-grade lesions except for 1 anaplastic astrocytoma.

Results

After a median follow-up period of 50.5 months, 7 patients showed progression of the disease. The actuarial progression-free survival rates were 97% in the 1st year, 84% in the 2nd year, and 80% in the 5th year. The degree of tumor resection was significantly related to the tumor control failure (p < 0.001) and malignant transformation of a low-grade tumor (p < 0.001). Univariate analyses using a Cox proportional hazards model showed that the following factors were significantly associated with a failure to control the tumor: 1) extent of the tumor (Schramm Type D; p = 0.003, relative risk [RR] 12.04); 2) size of the tumor (p = 0.033, RR 1.052/mm); 3) patient age at surgery ≥ 50 years (p = 0.007, RR 8.312); and 4) short duration of epilepsy (< 6 months; p = 0.001, RR 21.54).

Conclusions

Surgery is the principal treatment for MTL tumors, despite its technical difficulty. Complete tumor resection is strongly recommended for long-term tumor control. The MTL tumors are heterogeneous in their prognosis. Older age, short duration of epilepsy, and tumor size are all associated with poor outcome. Patients with these characteristics may have a more aggressive form of the disease than those with MTL tumors associated with chronic epilepsy.

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Ho Jun Seol, Chun Kee Chung and Hyun Jib Kim

Object. The anterior upper thoracic spine (T1–3) is difficult to access because most neurosurgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomy. This study was performed to evaluate the different surgical options by retrospectively analyzing data on operations performed for anterior upper thoracic compression at the authors' institution.

Methods. Eighteen patients underwent surgery between November 1993 and May 2001. There were eight men and 10 women; their mean age was 55 years (range 28–80 years). All patients presented with pain and/or neurological deficits. The causes of anterior compression were diverse, although metastatic spinal tumor was most common. The approach chosen was primarily dictated by the axial involvement of the lesion. Anterior approaches, mainly the transmanubrium approach, were performed in six and posterior approaches in 12. In all cases except one, in which only an iliac bone graft was placed, instrumentation was used. The mean follow-up period was 11.4 months (range 1–57 months). One postoperative death occurred. Postoperative follow-up imaging studies, especially plain radiography, demonstrated no instrumentation failure. Improvement was shown in eight patients, an aggravation of symptoms in one, and stable clinical status in eight.

Conclusions. Decompression may be achieved on the anterior side of the upper thoracic spine if the operative approach is scrupulously chosen; this choice involves consideration of the locations of the lesion, the nature of the primary disease, and the surgery-related risk.

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Nicholas M. Barbaro

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June Ho Lee, Chun-Kee Chung and Hyun Jib Kim

✓ A 16-year-old boy presented at the authors' emergency department with a sudden deterioration of respiration. He had been paraparetic for 3 years and had become quadriplegic 2 days previously. Magnetic resonance images revealed a Chiari I malformation and a hydromyelic cavity extending from C-1 to T-11. Rostrally, a small cylindrically shaped lesion extended from the cervicomedullary junction to the left semioval center. The patient made a dramatic neurological recovery following suboccipital craniectomy and upper cervical laminectomies with augmentation duraplasties followed by placement of a syringoperitoneal shunt.

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Sung Bae Park, Tae-Ahn Jahng, Chi Heon Kim and Chun Kee Chung

Object

The aim of this study was to describe a novel technique for laminoplasty in which translaminar screws are used in the thoracic and lumbar spine.

Methods

The authors first performed a morphometric study in 20 control individuals using 3D reconstructed CT scans and spine simulation software to measure the lengths and diameters of the spaces available for translaminar screw placement from the T-1 to S-1.

Based on the results of the morphometric study, the authors then attempted translaminar screw fixation in 5 patients (April 2007–July 2007) after en bloc laminectomy in the thoracic and lumbar regions. All patients had intradural lesions: 3 schwannomas, 1 cavernoma, and 1 arachnoid cyst.

Results

The morphometric study in control individuals revealed that the safe trajectories for simulated screws measured 25–30 mm in length and 8–11 mm in diameter in the thoracic region (T1–12) and 26–34 mm in length and 6–7 mm in diameter in the lumbosacral region (L1–S1). This morphometric and simulation study showed that translaminar screw placement would be possible in practice.

Five patients underwent en bloc laminoplasty and translaminar screw fixation in which the screws measured 2.7 mm in diameter and 24 or 26 mm in length. Sixteen attempts at translaminar fixation were made in 8 vertebrae. Fourteen translaminar screws were successfully placed at the thoracic and lumbar levels. Two microplates had to be used because the laminae were too thin and narrow after further laminectomy with undercutting. There were no complications associated with the translaminar screws.

The mean follow-up period was 14.5 months. There was no screw breakage or displacement. Solid osseous fusion was documented in 2 patients who underwent CT scanning 15 months postoperatively.

Conclusions

The authors found that the laminoplasty and translaminar screw technique is feasible in the thoracic and lumbar regions, but further studies are needed to analyze the biomechanical effects and long-term outcomes in a large number of patients.

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Won Heo, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung and Sang Kun Lee

OBJECTIVE

In this study, the authors investigated long-term clinical and visual outcomes of patients after occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) surgery and analyzed the relationship between visual cortical resection and visual function after OLE surgery.

METHODS

A total of 42 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with OLE and underwent occipital lobe resection between June 1995 and November 2013 were included. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were reviewed retrospectively. Seizure outcomes were categorized according to the Engel classification. Visual function after surgery was assessed using the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25. The relationship between the resected area of the visual cortex and visual function was demonstrated by multivariate linear regression models.

RESULTS

After a mean follow-up period of 102.2 months, 27 (64.3%) patients were seizure free, and 6 (14.3%) patients had an Engel Class II outcome. Nineteen (57.6%) of 33 patients had a normal visual field or quadrantanopia after surgery (normal and quadrantanopia groups). Patients in the normal and quadrantanopia groups had better vision-related quality of life than those in the hemianopsia group. The resection of lateral occipital areas 1 and 2 of the occipital lobe was significantly associated with difficulties in general vision, peripheral vision, and vision-specific roles. In addition, the resection of intraparietal sulcus 3 or 4 was significantly associated with decreased social functioning.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found a favorable seizure control rate (Engel Class I or II) of 78.6%, and 57.6% of the subjects had good visual function (normal vision or quadrantanopia) after OLE surgery. Lateral occipital cortical resection had a significant effect on visual function despite preservation of the visual field.

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Soo Eon Lee, Chun Kee Chung, Tae-Ahn Jahng and Hyun-Jib Kim

Object

Although laminectomy is an effective surgical technique for the treatment of multilevel cervical stenotic lesions, postoperative kyphosis and neurological deterioration have been frequently reported after laminectomy. Hence, laminectomy without fusion is seldom performed nowadays. However, the clinical impression from the long-term follow-up of patients who had undergone laminectomy does not support that postoperative kyphosis is common in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). In this paper, the authors assessed the long-term outcome of laminectomy for cervical OPLL in terms of the changes in the cervical curvature and in the neurological status.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed medical records and radiological images in patients who had undergone cervical laminectomy between 1999 and 2009. The preoperative and the final follow-up status recovery rate were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale. The cervical global angle and range of motion (ROM) were measured preoperatively and at the last follow-up. The cervical spine was classified into 3 types: lordotic, straight, and kyphotic.

Results

A total of 34 patients were available for medical record review and telephone interviews. There were 28 men and 6 women, whose mean age at the time of surgery was 57.8 years. The mean follow-up period was 57.5 months. The mean preoperative JOA score was 10.7, and the JOA score at the last follow-up was significantly improved to 14.3 (p < 0.001) with a recovery rate of 56.3%. The JOA score at each postoperative follow-up point increased until 6 years postoperatively; thereafter, it gradually decreased. The mean preoperative global angle was −11.3° and the most recent global angle was −8.4°. The preoperative ROM was 33.9° and the most recent ROM was 27.4°. There was no statistical significance in the change of cervical curvature or ROM. Preoperatively, 29 of the 34 patients had a lordotic cervical curvature and 5 patients had a straight spine. At last follow-up, 24 patients had a lordotic curvature, 3 patients changed from lordosis to kyphosis, and 7 patients had a straight spine. One patient whose cervical curvature changed from lordosis to kyphosis during the follow-up period underwent cervical fusion 9 years after the laminectomy procedure.

Conclusions

The long-term outcome of laminectomy for cervical OPLL is satisfactory in terms of the clinical and radiological aspects. The risk of postlaminectomy kyphosis was not high, raising the possibility that the OPLL itself may serve as a support for the spinal column.