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Christopher S. Hong, Daniel M. Prevedello and J. Bradley Elder

OBJECT

Tubular brain retractors may improve access to deep-seated brain lesions while potentially reducing the risks of collateral neurological injury associated with standard microsurgical approaches. Here, microscope-assisted resection of lesions using tubular retractors is assessed to determine if it is superior to endoscope-assisted surgery due to the technological advancements associated with modern tubular ports and surgical microscopes.

METHODS

Following institutional approval of the tubular port, data obtained from the initial 20 patients to undergo transportal resection of deep-seated brain lesions were analyzed in this study. The pathological entities of the resected tissues included metastatic tumors (8 patients), glioma (7), meningioma (1), neurocytoma (1), radiation necrosis (1), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1), and hemangioblastoma (1). Surgery incorporated endoscopic (5 patients) or microscopic (15) assistance. The locations included the basal ganglia (11 patients), cerebellum (4), frontal lobe (2), temporal lobe (2), and parietal lobe (1). Cases were reviewed for neurological outcomes, extent of resection (EOR), and complications. Technical data for the port, surgical microscope, and endoscope were analyzed.

RESULTS

EOR was considered total in 14 (70%), near total (> 95%) in 4 (20%), and subtotal (< 90%) in 2 (10%) of 20 patients. Incomplete resection was associated with the basal ganglia location (p < 0.05) and use of the endoscope (p < 0.002). Four of 5 (80%) endoscope-assisted cases were near-total (2) or subtotal (2) resection. Histopathological diagnosis, presenting neurological symptoms, and demographics were not associated with EOR. Complication rates were low and similar between groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Initial experience with tubular retractors favors use of the microscope rather than the endoscope due to a wider and 3D field of view. Improved microscope optics and tubular retractor design allows for binocular vision with improved lighting for the resection of deep-seated brain lesions.

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Shuyu Hao, Christopher S. Hong, Jie Feng, Chunzhang Yang, Prashant Chittiboina, Junting Zhang and Zhengping Zhuang

Maffucci syndrome is a rare disease characterized by multiple enchondromas and soft-tissue hemangiomas. Additionally, neuroendocrine tumors including pituitary adenomas have been described in these patients. The underlying genetic etiology lies in somatic mosaicism of mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2). This report describes a patient with Maffucci syndrome who presented with intracranial tumors of the skull base and suprasellar region. The patient underwent resection of both intracranial tumors, revealing histopathological diagnoses of chondrosarcoma and pituitary adenoma. DNA sequencing of the tumors was performed to identify common IDH1/2 mutations. Clinical, radiological, and biochemical assessments were performed. Genotypic studies used standard Sanger sequencing in conjunction with a target-specific peptide nucleic acid to detect IDH1 mutations in tumor tissues. DNA sequencing demonstrated identical IDH1 mutations (c.394C > T) in both tumors.

To the authors’ knowledge, this report provides the first genetic evidence for the inclusion of pituitary adenomas among tumors characterizing Maffucci syndrome. In patients who are newly diagnosed with Maffucci syndrome, it is appropriate to monitor for development of pituitary pathology and neuroendocrine dysfunction.

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Jason K. Hsieh, Christopher S. Hong, Sunil Manjila, Mark L. Cohen, Simon Lo, Lisa Rogers and Andrew E. Sloan

The authors present the case of a primary gliosarcoma with an isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) mutation. A 75-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of multiple focal seizures and was found on MRI to have a 2.2-cm left parietal enhancing mass lesion. Brain MRI for tremor performed 8 years prior to this presentation was normal. En bloc resection revealed a high-grade glioma with sarcomatous components that was immunoreactive for the R132H variant of IDH1 by antibody. Gliosarcoma is a rare variant of glioblastoma that arises most frequently as a primary tumor, and has equal or worse survival and an increased propensity for extracranial metastases compared with other Grade 4 gliomas. In contrast, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 and -2 mutations are associated with low-grade gliomas with increased survival and less commonly with glioblastoma. To the authors' knowledge, there has been only 1 other published report of a primary gliosarcoma carrying an isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation. This rare genetic-histological combination highlights potential differences between glioblastoma and gliosarcoma and may warrant additional study.

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Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Andrew B. Koo, Megan Lee, Adam J. Kundishora, Christopher S. Hong, Astrid C. Hengartner, Joaquin Camara-Quintana, Kristopher T. Kahle and Michael L. DiLuna

OBJECTIVE

In the past decade, a gradual transition of health policy to value-based healthcare has brought increased attention to measuring the quality of care delivered. In spine surgery, adolescents with scoliosis are a population particularly at risk for depression, anxious feelings, and impaired quality of life related to back pain and cosmetic appearance of the deformity. With the rising prevalence of mental health ailments, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of concurrent affective disorders on patient care after spinal surgery in adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact that affective disorders have on perioperative complication rates, length of stay (LOS), and total costs in adolescents undergoing elective posterior spinal fusion (PSF) (≥ 4 levels) for idiopathic scoliosis.

METHODS

A retrospective study of the Kids’ Inpatient Database for the year 2012 was performed. Adolescent patients (age range 10–17 years old) with AIS undergoing elective PSF (≥ 4 levels) were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system. Patients were categorized into 2 groups at discharge: affective disorder or no affective disorder. Patient demographics, comorbidities, complications, LOS, discharge disposition, and total cost were assessed. The primary outcomes were perioperative complication rates, LOS, total cost, and discharge dispositions.

RESULTS

There were 3759 adolescents included in this study, of whom 164 (4.4%) were identified with an affective disorder (no affective disorder: n = 3595). Adolescents with affective disorders were significantly older than adolescents with no affective disorders (affective disorder: 14.4 ± 1.9 years vs no affective disorder: 13.9 ± 1.8 years, p = 0.001), and had significantly different proportions of race (p = 0.005). Aside from hospital region (p = 0.016), no other patient- or hospital-level factors differed between the cohorts. Patient comorbidities did not differ significantly between cohorts. The number of vertebral levels involved was similar between the cohorts, with the majority of patients having 9 or more levels involved (affective disorder: 76.8% vs no affective disorder: 79.5%, p = 0.403). Postoperative complications were similar between the cohorts, with no significant difference in the proportion of patients experiencing a postoperative complication (p = 0.079) or number of complications (p = 0.124). The mean length of stay and mean total cost were similar between the cohorts. Moreover, the routine and nonroutine discharge dispositions were also similar between the cohorts, with the majority of patients having routine discharges (affective disorder: 93.9% vs no affective disorder: 94.9%, p = 0.591).

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests that affective disorders may not have a significant impact on surgical outcomes in adolescent patients undergoing surgery for scoliosis in comparison with adults. Further studies are necessary to elucidate how affective disorders affect adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis, which may improve provider approach in managing these patients perioperatively and at follow-up in hopes to better the overall patient satisfaction and quality of care delivered.