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Christopher P. Cifarelli, David J. Schlesinger and Jason P. Sheehan

Object

Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) has become a significant component of neurosurgical treatment for recurrent secretory and nonsecretory pituitary adenomas. Although the long-term risks of visual dysfunction following microsurgical resection of pituitary adenomas has been well studied, the comparable risk following radiosurgery is not well defined. This study evaluates the long-term risks of ophthalmological dysfunction following GKS for recurrent pituitary adenomas.

Methods

An analysis of 217 patients with recurrent secretory (n = 131) and nonsecretory (n = 86) pituitary adenomas was performed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for subsequent development of visual dysfunction. Patients underwent ophthalmological evaluation as part of post-GKS follow-up to assess for new or worsened cranial nerve II, III, IV, or VI palsies. The median follow-up duration was 32 months. The median maximal dose was 50 Gy, and the median peripheral dose was 23 Gy. A univariate analysis was performed to assess for risk factors of visual dysfunction post-GKS.

Results

Nine patients (4%) developed new visual dysfunctions, and these occurred within 6 hours to 34 months following radiosurgery. None of these 9 patients had tumor growth on post-GKS neuroimaging studies. Three of these patients had permanent deficits whereas in 6 the deficits resolved. Five of the 9 patients had prior GKS or radiotherapy, which resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of cranial nerve dysfunction (p = 0.0008). An increased number of isocenters (7.1 vs 5.0, p = 0.048) was statistically related to the development of visual dysfunction. Maximal dose, margin dose, optic apparatus dose, tumor volume, cavernous sinus involvement, and suprasellar extension were not significantly related to visual dysfunction (p >0.05).

Conclusions

Neurological and ophthalmological assessment in addition to routine neuroimaging and endocrinological follow-up are important to perform following GKS. Patients with a history of radiosurgery or radiation therapy are at higher risk of cranial nerve deficits. Also, a reduction in the number of isocenters delivered, along with volume treated, particularly in the patients with secretory tumors, appears to be the most reasonable strategy to minimize the risk to the visual system when treating recurrent pituitary adenomas with stereotactic radiosurgery.

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Christopher P. Cifarelli, Brian Titus and Hian Kwang Yeoh

Object

The current management of primary CNS tumors involves a multimodal approach, incorporating cytoreductive techniques including resection, radiotherapy, and antiproliferative chemotherapeutic agents. Despite these attempts, the majority of patients with a diagnosis of a high-grade glioma have a dismal prognosis, with the leading cause of treatment failure and tumor recurrence attributable to local invasion of adjacent brain parenchyma. The current study examines the capacity of glioma tumor cells to undergo neurite outgrowth and local migration, specifically focusing on the role of the cadherin cell adhesion system.

Methods

Using a recombinant cadherin ectodomain protein, U373MG human glioblastoma cells were assessed for their ability to adhere and migrate in a cadherin-dependent manner in culture. Adhesion was evaluated via growth assessment and neurite length at 72 hours growth on an immobilized cadherin substrate and compared with other matrix adhesion proteins, such as Type IV collagen and vitronectin. Migratory capacity was measured via modified transwell assays, also using recombinant cadherin ectodomain in comparison with collagen and vitronectin.

Results

Cadherin adherent cells adopt a fasciculated morphology, with a significant increase in neurite extension, measuring 104 ± 13.3 μm in length, compared with background adhesion on bovine serum albumin and nonfunctional cadherin ectodomain controls measuring 55 ± 4.4 and 47 ± 3.84 μm, respectively (p = 0.029). Significant increases in neurite length compared with controls were also observed in the vitronectin (81 ± 4.69 μm) and Type IV collagen (91 ± 7.7 μm) groups (p = 0.017 and 0.025, respectively). With respect to migration, U373 cells demonstrate increased invasion in response to cadherin ectodomain exposure, whereas vitronectin and Type IV collagen were not potent initiators of migration through the transwell barrier. Both adhesion and migration outcomes were noted in the absence of any relative changes in cell proliferation, indicating a primary role for the cadherin-based adhesion system in tumor invasion.

Conclusions

Cadherin-based adhesion promotes increased adhesion, neurite outgrowth, and migration in human U373MG glioblastoma cells, providing a novel area of research for the development of therapeutic targets addressing local tumor invasion.

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Jason Sheehan, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Kasandra Dassoulas, Claire Olson, Jessica Rainey and Shaojie Han

Object

Glioblastoma (GB) tumors typically exhibit regions of hypoxia. Hypoxic areas within the tumor can make tumor cells less sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) has been shown to transiently increase oxygen to hypoxic brain tumors. The authors examined whether this improvement in intratumor oxygenation translates to a therapeutic advantage when delivering standard adjuvant treatment to GBs.

Methods

The authors used C6 glioma cells to create a hypoxic GB model. The C6 glioma cells were stereotactically injected into the rat brain to create a tumor. Fifteen days later, MR imaging was used to confirm the presence of a glioma. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 1) temozolomide alone (350 mg/m2/day for 5 days); 2) temozolomide and radiation therapy (8 Gy); or 3) TSC (100 μg/kg for 5 days), temozolomide, and radiation therapy. Animals were followed through survival studies, and tumor response was assessed on serial MR images obtained at 15-day intervals during a 2-month period.

Results

Mean survival (± SEM) of the temozolomide-alone and the temozolomide/radiotherapy groups was 23.2 ± 0.9 and 29.4 ± 4.4 days, respectively. Mean survival in the TSC/temozolomide/radiotherapy group was 39.8 ± 6 days, a statistically significant improvement compared with either of the other groups (p < 0.05).

Although tumor size was statistically equivalent in all groups at the time of treatment initiation, the addition of TSC to temozolomide and radiotherapy resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the MR imaging–documented mean tumor size at 30 days after tumor implantation. The mean tumor size in the TSC/temozolomide/radiotherapy group was 18.9 ± 6.6 mm2 compared with 42.1 ± 2.7 mm2 in the temozolomide-alone group (p = 0.047) and 35.8 ± 5.1 mm2 in the temozolomide/radiation group (p = 0.004).

Conclusions

In a hypoxic GB model, TSC improves the radiological and clinical effectiveness of temozolomide and radiation therapy. Further investigation of this oxygen diffusion enhancer as a radiosensitizer for hypoxic brain tumors seems warranted.

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Jason P. Sheehan, Britney Popp, Stephen Monteith, Sushila Toulmin, Jennifer Tomlinson, Jessica Martin, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Dae-Hee Lee and Deric M. Park

Object

Intratumoral hypoxia is believed to be exhibited in high-grade gliomas. Trans sodium crocetinate (TSC) has been shown to increase oxygen diffusion to hypoxic tissues. In this research, the authors use oxygen-sensitive PET studies to evaluate the extent of hypoxia in vivo in a glioblastoma model and the effect of TSC on the baseline oxygenation of the tumor.

Methods

The C6 glioma cells were stereotactically implanted in the right frontal region of rat brains. Formation of intracranial tumors was confirmed on MR imaging. Animals were injected with Copper(II) diacetyl-di(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) and then either TSC or saline (6 rats each). Positron emission tomography imaging was performed, and relative uptake values were computed to determine oxygenation within the tumor and normal brain parenchyma. Additionally, TSC or saline was infused into the animals, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and hypoxia-inducing factor–1α (HIF-1α) protein expression were measured 1 day afterward.

Results

On PET imaging, all glioblastoma tumors demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in uptake of Cu-ATSM compared with the contralateral cerebral hemisphere (p = 0.000002). The mean relative uptake value of the tumor was 3900 (range 2203–6836), and that of the contralateral brain tissue was 1017 (range 488–2304).

The mean relative hypoxic tumor volume for the saline group and TSC group (6 rats each) was 1.01 ± 0.063 and 0.69 ± 0.062, respectively (mean ± SEM, p = 0.002). Infusion of TSC resulted in a 31% decrease in hypoxic volume. Immunoblot analysis revealed expression of HIF-1α and CA9 in all tumor specimens.

Conclusions

Some glioblastomas exhibit hypoxia that is demonstrable on oxygen-specific PET imaging. It appears that TSC lessens intratumoral hypoxia on functional imaging. Further studies should explore relative hypoxia in glioblastoma and the potential therapeutic gains that can be achieved by lessening hypoxia during delivery of adjuvant treatment.

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Diogo Cordeiro, Zhiyuan Xu, Gautam U. Mehta, Dale Ding, Mary Lee Vance, Hideyuki Kano, Nathaniel Sisterson, Huai-che Yang, Douglas Kondziolka, L. Dade Lunsford, David Mathieu, Gene H. Barnett, Veronica Chiang, John Lee, Penny Sneed, Yan-Hua Su, Cheng-chia Lee, Michal Krsek, Roman Liscak, Ahmed M. Nabeel, Amr El-Shehaby, Khaled Abdel Karim, Wael A. Reda, Nuria Martinez-Moreno, Roberto Martinez-Alvarez, Kevin Blas, Inga Grills, Kuei C. Lee, Mikulas Kosak, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Gennadiy A. Katsevman and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Recurrent or residual adenomas are frequently treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The most common complication after GKRS for pituitary adenomas is hypopituitarism. In the current study, the authors detail the timing and types of hypopituitarism in a multicenter, international cohort of pituitary adenoma patients treated with GKRS.

METHODS

Seventeen institutions pooled clinical data obtained from pituitary adenoma patients who were treated with GKRS from 1988 to 2016. Patients who had undergone prior radiotherapy were excluded. A total of 1023 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The treated lesions included 410 nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), 262 cases of Cushing’s disease (CD), and 251 cases of acromegaly. The median follow-up was 51 months (range 6–246 months). Statistical analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate factors associated with the development of new-onset hypopituitarism.

RESULTS

At last follow-up, 248 patients had developed new pituitary hormone deficiency (86 with NFPA, 66 with CD, and 96 with acromegaly). Among these patients, 150 (60.5%) had single and 98 (39.5%) had multiple hormone deficiencies. New hormonal changes included 82 cortisol (21.6%), 135 thyrotropin (35.6%), 92 gonadotropin (24.3%), 59 growth hormone (15.6%), and 11 vasopressin (2.9%) deficiencies. The actuarial 1-year, 3-year, 5-year, 7-year, and 10-year rates of hypopituitarism were 7.8%, 16.2%, 22.4%, 27.5%, and 31.3%, respectively. The median time to hypopituitarism onset was 39 months.

In univariate analyses, an increased rate of new-onset hypopituitarism was significantly associated with a lower isodose line (p = 0.006, HR = 8.695), whole sellar targeting (p = 0.033, HR = 1.452), and treatment of a functional pituitary adenoma as compared with an NFPA (p = 0.008, HR = 1.510). In multivariate analyses, only a lower isodose line was found to be an independent predictor of new-onset hypopituitarism (p = 0.001, HR = 1.38).

CONCLUSIONS

Hypopituitarism remains the most common unintended effect of GKRS for a pituitary adenoma. Treating the target volume at an isodose line of 50% or greater and avoiding whole-sellar radiosurgery, unless necessary, will likely mitigate the risk of post-GKRS hypopituitarism. Follow-up of these patients is required to detect and treat latent endocrinopathies.

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Robert M. Starke, David J. McCarthy, Ching-Jen Chen, Hideyuki Kano, Brendan McShane, John Lee, David Mathieu, Lucas T. Vasas, Anthony M. Kaufmann, Wei Gang Wang, Inga S. Grills, Mohana Rao Patibandla, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Gabriella Paisan, John A. Vargo, Tomas Chytka, Ladislava Janouskova, Caleb E. Feliciano, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Daniel A. Tonetti, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

In this multicenter study, the authors reviewed the results obtained in patients who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) and determined predictors of outcome.

METHODS

Data from a cohort of 114 patients who underwent GKRS for cerebral dAVFs were compiled from the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Favorable outcome was defined as dAVF obliteration and no posttreatment hemorrhage or permanent symptomatic radiation-induced complications. Patient and dAVF characteristics were assessed to determine predictors of outcome in a multivariate logistic regression analysis; dAVF-free obliteration was calculated in a competing-risk survival analysis; and Youden indices were used to determine optimal radiosurgical dose.

RESULTS

A mean margin dose of 21.8 Gy was delivered. The mean follow-up duration was 4 years (range 0.5–18 years). The overall obliteration rate was 68.4%. The postradiosurgery actuarial rates of obliteration at 3, 5, 7, and 10 years were 41.3%, 61.1%, 70.1%, and 82.0%, respectively. Post-GRKS hemorrhage occurred in 4 patients (annual risk of 0.9%). Radiation-induced imaging changes occurred in 10.4% of patients; 5.2% were symptomatic, and 3.5% had permanent deficits. Favorable outcome was achieved in 63.2% of patients. Patients with middle fossa and tentorial dAVFs (OR 2.4, p = 0.048) and those receiving a margin dose greater than 23 Gy (OR 2.6, p = 0.030) were less likely to achieve a favorable outcome. Commonly used grading scales (e.g., Borden and Cognard) were not predictive of outcome. Female sex (OR 1.7, p = 0.03), absent venous ectasia (OR 3.4, p < 0.001), and cavernous carotid location (OR 2.1, p = 0.019) were predictors of GKRS-induced dAVF obliteration.

CONCLUSIONS

GKRS for cerebral dAVFs achieved obliteration and avoided permanent complications in the majority of patients. Those with cavernous carotid location and no venous ectasia were more likely to have fistula obliteration following radiosurgery. Commonly used grading scales were not reliable predictors of outcome following radiosurgery.

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Robert M. Starke, David J. McCarthy, Ching-Jen Chen, Hideyuki Kano, Brendan J. McShane, John Lee, Mohana Rao Patibandla, David Mathieu, Lucas T. Vasas, Anthony M. Kaufmann, Wei Gang Wang, Inga S. Grills, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Gabriella Paisan, John Vargo, Tomas Chytka, Ladislava Janouskova, Caleb E. Feliciano, Nanthiya Sujijantarat, Charles Matouk, Veronica Chiang, Judith Hess, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Daniel A. Tonetti, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

The authors performed a study to evaluate the hemorrhagic rates of cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) and the risk factors of hemorrhage following Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS).

METHODS

Data from a cohort of patients undergoing GKRS for cerebral dAVFs were compiled from the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation. The annual posttreatment hemorrhage rate was calculated as the number of hemorrhages divided by the patient-years at risk. Risk factors for dAVF hemorrhage prior to GKRS and during the latency period after radiosurgery were evaluated in a multivariate analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 147 patients with dAVFs were treated with GKRS. Thirty-six patients (24.5%) presented with hemorrhage. dAVFs that had any cortical venous drainage (CVD) (OR = 3.8, p = 0.003) or convexity or torcula location (OR = 3.3, p = 0.017) were more likely to present with hemorrhage in multivariate analysis. Half of the patients had prior treatment (49.7%). Post-GRKS hemorrhage occurred in 4 patients, with an overall annual risk of 0.84% during the latency period. The annual risks of post-GKRS hemorrhage for Borden type 2–3 dAVFs and Borden type 2–3 hemorrhagic dAVFs were 1.45% and 0.93%, respectively. No hemorrhage occurred after radiological confirmation of obliteration. Independent predictors of hemorrhage following GKRS included nonhemorrhagic neural deficit presentation (HR = 21.6, p = 0.027) and increasing number of past endovascular treatments (HR = 1.81, p = 0.036).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients have similar rates of hemorrhage before and after radiosurgery until obliteration is achieved. dAVFs that have any CVD or are located in the convexity or torcula were more likely to present with hemorrhage. Patients presenting with nonhemorrhagic neural deficits and a history of endovascular treatments had higher risks of post-GKRS hemorrhage.

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I. Jonathan Pomeraniec, Hideyuki Kano, Zhiyuan Xu, Brandon Nguyen, Zaid A. Siddiqui, Danilo Silva, Mayur Sharma, Hesham Radwan, Jonathan A. Cohen, Robert F. Dallapiazza, Christian Iorio-Morin, Amparo Wolf, John A. Jane Jr., Inga S. Grills, David Mathieu, Douglas Kondziolka, Cheng-Chia Lee, Chih-Chun Wu, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Tomas Chytka, Gene H. Barnett, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is frequently used to treat residual or recurrent nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas. There is no consensus as to whether GKRS should be used early after surgery or if radiosurgery should be withheld until there is evidence of imaging-defined progression of tumor. Given the high incidence of adenoma progression after subtotal resection over time, the present study intended to evaluate the effect of timing of radiosurgery on outcome.

METHODS

This is a multicenter retrospective review of patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas who underwent transsphenoidal surgery followed by GKRS from 1987 to 2015 at 9 institutions affiliated with the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Patients were matched by adenoma and radiosurgical parameters and stratified based on the interval between last resection and radiosurgery. Operative results, imaging data, and clinical outcomes were compared across groups following early (≤ 6 months after resection) or late (> 6 months after resection) radiosurgery.

RESULTS

After matching, 222 patients met the authors’ study criteria (from an initial collection of 496 patients) and were grouped based on early (n = 111) or late (n = 111) GKRS following transsphenoidal surgery. There was a greater risk of tumor progression after GKRS (p = 0.013) and residual tumor (p = 0.038) in the late radiosurgical group over a median imaging follow-up period of 68.5 months. No significant difference in the occurrence of post-GKRS endocrinopathy was observed (p = 0.68). Thirty percent of patients without endocrinopathy in the early cohort developed new endocrinopathies during the follow-up period versus 27% in the late cohort (p = 0.84). Fourteen percent of the patients in the early group and 25% of the patients in the late group experienced the resolution of endocrine dysfunction after original presentation (p = 0.32).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, early GKRS was associated with a lower risk of radiological progression of subtotally resected nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas compared with expectant management followed by late radiosurgery. Delaying radiosurgery may increase patient risk for long-term adenoma progression. The timing of radiosurgery does not appear to significantly affect the rate of delayed endocrinopathy.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010