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Thomas P. Naidich and Christopher J. Moran

✓ Metrizamide computerized tomographic cisternography (MCTC) has proved 100% successful in documenting the precise anatomic location of the dural osseous defect in three patients with sphenoethmoidal rhinorrhea. In each patient, direct surgical approach to the site indicated by MCTC terminated the leakage in a single procedure. Clinical evaluation has disclosed no renewed leakage during a follow-up period from 6 to 18 months.

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Bruce A. Kaufman, Christopher J. Moran and James Schlesinger

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Martin M. Henegar, Christopher J. Moran and Daniel L. Silbergeld

✓ Postcraniotomy residual tumor is often determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Magnetic resonance changes that occur in the postoperative setting must be defined to ensure both the optimum timing of postoperative image acquisition and the accurate assessment of images for residual tumor. Postoperative changes in nontumor parenchyma have previously been described for computerized tomography but not for MR imaging. In the present study, 11 patients without intracranial neoplastic disease (six females and five males with a median age of 36 years) submitted to MR imaging 17 to 28 hours after undergoing temporal lobectomies for epilepsy. Four of the operations were performed with the patients under general anesthesia and seven under local anesthesia. Postoperative MR images (T1-weighted, T1-weighted gadolinium enhanced, and T2-weighted) were reviewed. Extraaxial fluid, air, or blood was present in all cases. Enhancement of the resection bed parenchyma occurred in seven (64%) of 11 patients. In three of the remaining four patients, assessment of parenchymal enhancement was obscured by extraaxial fluid collections. Dural enhancement occurred adjacent to the resection site in all of the cases and remotely in 73%. Eight (73%) of 11 patients displayed enhancement of the pia-arachnoid of the ipsilateral cerebral convexity, two (18%) of the contralateral convexity, and four (36%) of the pia-arachnoid overlying the cerebellum. Contrary to previous reports, contrast enhancement of nonneoplastic human brain parenchyma can occur postoperatively within 17 hours. Benign parenchymal contrast enhancement is usually linear in appearance; non-neoplastic dural and leptomeningeal enhancement can occur both adjacent to and distant from the surgical site. Extraaxial fluid collections can hinder MR evaluation of the resection bed.

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Yasha Kadkhodayan, Colin P. Derdeyn, Dewitte T. Cross III and Christopher J. Moran

Object

The goal in this retrospective study was to examine the procedural complication rate for carotid angioplasty and stent placement performed without cerebral protection devices.

Methods

Between March 1996 and December 2003, 167 carotid angioplasty and/or stent placement procedures were performed without cerebral protection devices in 152 patients (57 women and 95 men whose mean age was 64 years, range 19–92 years). Seven of these patients underwent angioplasty alone. Eighty-nine patients presented with focal neurological symptoms. Indications for surgery included atherosclerosis, radiation-associated stenosis, dissection, pseudoaneurysm, and stretched endovascular coils from aneurysm treatment. In this study, the patients' medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics, techniques used, and resulting intraprocedural and 30-day complication rates.

The intraprocedural stroke rate was four (2.4%) of 167; this included three hemispheric strokes and one retinal embolus. All events occurred in patients who had symptomatic stenosis. The procedural transient ischemic complication rate was six (3.6%) of 167, as was the procedural nonneurological complication rate. During the 30 days post-procedure, one patient had died and three had suffered permanent ischemic events (two cerebral and one ocular). The composite 30-day postprocedural stroke and death rate was eight (5%) of 160. The rate of asymptomatic angiographically confirmed abnormalities was 0.6% (one treated vessel that was occluded but asymptomatic). The 30-day rate of nonneurological complications was 2.5%. A strong association between intraprocedural thromboembolic events (eight cases) and prior ischemic symptoms was found (p = 0.01).

Conclusions

Carotid angioplasty and stent placement without cerebral protection devices is safe, particularly in patients without symptomatic stenosis.

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Jeffrey G. Ojemann, Christopher J. Moran, Murat Gokden and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.

✓ Lesions involving the sagittal sinus typically present as masses compressing the sinus externally. The authors describe two cases of lesions entirely within the lumen of the sagittal sinus. In one of the cases, syncope was the presenting symptom and surgical resection of the cyst was performed. An entirely intraluminal cyst, consistent with a dural cyst, was resected, followed by reconstruction of the sinus and resolution of symptoms. Entirely intraluminal lesions of the sagittal sinus have rarely been reported as incidental findings. This represents the first report of symptomatic occlusion of a venous sinus by an intraluminal cyst.

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Avi Mazumdar, Dennis J. Rivet, Colin P. Derdeyn, DeWitte T. Cross III and Christopher J. Moran

Object

This study was conducted to determine whether there is a change in intracranial arterial diameters after verapamil infusion for vasospasm and, if it is present, to determine whether the change occurs in proximal, intermediate, or distal vessels.

Methods

The authors measured arterial diameters in all patients treated with intraarterial verapamil at their institutions between August 2003 and September 2004. In all, 18 treatments were examined in 15 patients. Measurements were made before and after verapamil infusion in a blinded fashion with the aid of a magnification loupe at nine predetermined arterial sites on each angiogram. Baseline arterial measurements were made on each patient's initial angiogram and on the angiogram demonstrating spasm prior to endovascular therapy as well in 14 of the patients. Charts were retrospectively reviewed to determine whether the patients benefited from intraarterial vera-pamil.

From the time of the initial angiogram to the time of vasospasm, there was a 21.6% decrease (p = 0.092) in proximal artery diameter, a 47.1% decrease (p < 0.05) in intermediate artery diameter, and a 12.4% decrease (p < 0.05) in distal artery diameter. There were no significant changes in the diameters of proximal, intermediate, or distal vessels after verapamil infusion (mean dose 7.4 mg, range 2.5–10 mg). After infusion of intraarterial verapamil, the proximal vessels showed a 1.1% decrease in diameter, the intermediate vessels showed a 9.4% increase, and the distal vessels showed a 3.3% decrease.

Conclusions

Administration of intraarterial verapamil does not cause a significant increase in the diameter of vasospastic vessels at the administered doses.

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J. Alexander Marchosky, Christopher J. Moran, Neal E. Fearnot and Charles F. Babbs

✓ For the treatment of malignant gliomas, a technique for implanting hyperthermia catheters was developed that utilized a stereotactic template and head-stabilization frame mounted on a computerized tomography (CT) scanner. Computerized tomography scans were used to measure tumor dimensions and to determine the number, implantation depths, and active heating lengths of the catheters, which were implanted through twist-drill holes while the patient was in the CT room. Heat was subsequently delivered via implanted catheters using a computer-controlled hyperthermia system, which partially compensates for heterogeneous and time-varying tumor blood flow.

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James M. Milburn, Christopher J. Moran, DeWitte T. Cross III, Michael N. Diringer, Thomas K. Pilgram and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.

Object. This study was conducted to determine if there is a change in intracranial arterial diameters after papaverine infusion for vasospasm and to determine whether the change occurs in proximal, intermediate, and distal arteries.

Methods. The authors measured arterial diameters retrospectively in all patients who received intraarterial papaverine for treatment of vasospasm between November 1992 and August 1995. Patients who received papaverine in the same session with or following angioplasty were excluded. Measurements were made in a blinded manner with the aid of a magnification loupe at 12 predetermined sites on each angiogram before and after papaverine infusion. Eighty-one treatments in 34 patients were included. Angiograms obtained at the time of presentation with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were examined in 26 of the 34 patients. Nine carotid territories visualized by repeated angiography on the day after infusion were examined to determine the duration of the papaverine effect.

Conclusions. In all treatment groups an increase was found in the average arterial diameters ranging from 2.8 to 73.9%, with a mean increase of 26.5%. Increases in diameter were observed in proximal, intermediate, and distal arteries. The timing of treatments ranged from Day 3 to Day 19 post-SAH, and there was no relationship between timing and arterial responsiveness (r = −0.06). There was a moderately good correlation between the degree of vasospasm in an artery and its responsiveness to papaverine (r = −0.54, −0.66, and −0.66, for proximal, intermediate, and distal arteries, respectively). The effect of papaverine did not persist until the following day in patients in whom repeated angiography was performed.