Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 18 items for

  • Author or Editor: Christopher J. Stapleton x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Christopher J. Stapleton, Gursant S. Atwal, Ahmed E. Hussein, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani and Fady T. Charbel

OBJECTIVE

In extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, the cut flow index (CFI) is the ratio of bypass flow (ml/min) to donor vessel cut flow (ml/min), and a CFI ≥ 0.5 has been shown to correlate with bypass patency. The authors sought to validate this observation in a large cohort of EC-IC bypasses for ischemic cerebrovascular disease with long-term angiographic follow-up.

METHODS

All intracranial bypass procedures performed at a single institution between 2003 and 2018 were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, angiographic, and operative data were recorded and analyzed according to bypass patency with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses.

RESULTS

A total of 278 consecutive intracranial bypasses were performed during the study period, of which 157 (56.5%) were EC-IC bypasses for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Intraoperative blood flow measurements were available in 146 patients, and angiographic follow-up was available at a mean of 2.1 ± 2.6 years after bypass. The mean CFI was significantly higher in patients with patent bypasses (0.92 vs 0.64, p = 0.003). The bypass patency rate was 83.1% in cases with a CFI ≥ 0.5 compared with 46.4% in cases with a CFI < 0.5 (p < 0.0001). Adjusting for age, sex, diagnosis, and single versus double anastomosis, the CFI remained a significant predictor of bypass patency (p = 0.001; OR 5.8, 95% CI 2.0–19.0). A low CFI was also associated with early versus late bypass nonpatency (p = 0.008).

CONCLUSIONS

A favorable CFI portends long-term EC-IC bypass patency, while a poor CFI predicts eventual bypass nonpatency and can alert surgeons to potential problems with the donor vessel, anastomosis, or recipient bed during surgery.

Full access

Christopher J. Stapleton, Brian P. Walcott, William E. Butler and Christopher S. Ogilvy

OBJECT

Intraprocedural rerupture (IPR) of intracranial aneurysms during coil embolization is associated with significant periprocedural disability and death. However, whether this morbidity and mortality are secondary to an increased risk of vasospasm and hydrocephalus is unknown. The authors undertook this study to determine the in-hospital and long-term neurological outcomes for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated with coil embolization who suffer aneurysm rerupture during treatment.

METHODS

The records of 156 patients admitted with SAH from previously untreated, ruptured, intracranial aneurysms and treated with endovascular coiling between January 2007 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Twelve patients (7.7%) experienced IPR during coil embolization.

RESULTS

Compared with the cohort of patients with uncomplicated coil embolization procedures, patients with aneurysm rerupture were more likely to require external ventricular drain (EVD) placement (91.7% vs 58.3%, p = 0.02) and postprocedural EVD placement (36.4% vs 7.1%, p = 0.01), to undergo permanent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (50.0% vs 18.8%, p = 0.02), to develop symptomatic vasospasm (50.0% vs 18.1%, p = 0.02), and to have longer lengths of hospital stay (median 21.5 days vs 15.0 days, p = 0.04). Admission Hunt and Hess, modified Fisher, and Barrow Neurological Institute grades did not differ between the 2 cohorts, nor did long-term functional neurological outcomes as assessed by the modified Rankin Scale.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraprocedural rerupture during coil embolization for ruptured intracranial aneurysms is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic vasospasm and need for temporary and permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion for hydrocephalus.

Restricted access

Rahul A. Sastry, Matthew J. Koch, Benjamin L. Grannan, Christopher J. Stapleton, William E. Butler and Aman B. Patel

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a common treatment for noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Although rare, vascular injury and traumatic pseudoaneurysm development during ETV have been reported. The authors present the case of a 13-year-old boy who underwent repeat ETV (rETV) for shunt and ETV failure, and who suffered an intraoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage due to iatrogenic injury to the basilar tip, with subsequent development of a pseudoaneurysm. Despite initial primary coil embolization, the aneurysm recurred and was definitively treated with flow diversion. In this report, the authors review complication rates associated with ETV and rETV as well as the emerging use of flow diversion and its applications in vessel reconstruction within the pediatric population.

Full access

Christopher J. Stapleton, Martin H. Pham, Frank J. Attenello and Patrick C. Hsieh

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a disease of progressive ectopic calcification of the PLL of the spine. It occurs most frequently in the cervical spine, followed by the thoracic spine. The disease was first described in the Japanese population, and the prevalence of OPLL is highest in Japan at a rate of 1.9%–4.3%. Note, however, that OPLL is also seen and is a known cause of cervical myelopathy in other Asian countries and in the white population. Research into the underlying cause of OPLL over the past few decades has shown that it is a multifactorial disease with significant genetic involvement. Genetic studies of OPLL have revealed several gene loci that may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Genes encoding for proteins that process extracellular inorganic phosphate, collagen fibrils, and transcription factors involved in osteoblast and chondrocyte development and differentiation have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of OPLL. In this paper, the authors review current understanding of the genetics and pathophysiology of OPLL.

Full access

Christopher J. Stapleton, Charles Y. Liu and Martin H. Weiss

Growth hormone (GH)–secreting pituitary adenomas represent a common source of GH excess in patients with acromegaly. Whereas surgical extirpation of the culprit lesion is considered first-line treatment, as many as 19% of patients develop recurrent symptoms due to regrowth of previously resected adenomatous tissue or to continued growth of the surgically inaccessible tumor. Although medical therapies that suppress GH production can be effective in the management of primary and recurrent acromegaly, these therapies are not curative, and lifelong treatment is required for hormonal control. Stereotactic radiosurgery has emerged as an effective adjunctive treatment modality, and is an appealing alternative to conventional fractionated radiation therapy. The authors reviewed the growing body of literature concerning the role of radiosurgical procedures in the treatment armamentarium of acromegaly, and identified more than 1350 patients across 45 case series. In this review, the authors report that radiosurgery offers true hormonal normalization in 17% to 82% of patients and tumor growth control in 37% to 100% of cases across all series, while minimizing adverse complications. As a result, stereotactic radiosurgery represents a safe and effective treatment option in the multimodal management of primary or recurrent acromegaly secondary to GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

Restricted access

Pankaj K. Agarwalla, Christopher J. Stapleton, Michael T. Phillips, Brian P. Walcott, Andrew S. Venteicher and Christopher S. Ogilvy

Object

Moyamoya disease/syndrome (MMD/S) is a progressive, occlusive vasculopathy of the intracranial vasculature that leads to ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Significant debate exists regarding the role of indirect cerebrovascular bypass surgery in its management. The authors review their institution's experience with indirect bypass in the surgical management of patients with MMD/S.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective review of patients with MMD/S who underwent encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS), a form of indirect bypass, from 1996 to 2013.

Results

A total of 37 patients (52 hemispheres) underwent an EDAS procedure for MMD/S; 21 patients received revascularization of both hemispheres. Patients presented with the following: 49% with stroke, 35% with transient ischemic attack, 13% with hemorrhage, and 3% with seizure. The mean Suzuki grade was 3.46. The number of patients with a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–1 improved from 21 to 29 (p = 0.002) from the time of surgery to the time of last follow-up. The number of neurological events (i.e., transient ischemic attacks, strokes, and hemorrhages) decreased from a mean of 1.7 events per patient to 0.14 (p < 0.001). The mean length of follow-up was 32.8 months.

Conclusions

This series demonstrates that EDAS is an effective procedure for MMD/S in a North American cohort of patients.

Free access

Ahmed J. Awad, Brian P. Walcott, Christopher J. Stapleton, Vijay Yanamadala, Brian V. Nahed and Jean-Valery Coumans

Dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa) is a novel oral anticoagulant that has gained FDA approval for the prevention of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In randomized trials, the incidence of hemorrhagic events has been demonstrated to be lower in patients treated with dabigatran compared with the traditional anticoagulant warfarin. However, dabigatran does not have reliable laboratory tests to measure levels of anticoagulation and there is no pharmacological antidote. These drawbacks are challenging in the setting of intracerebral hemorrhage. In this article, the authors provide background information on dabigatran, review the existing anecdotal experiences with treating intracerebral hemorrhage related to dabigatran therapy, present a case study of intracranial hemorrhage in a patient being treated with dabigatran, and suggest clinical management strategies. The development of reversal agents is urgently needed given the growing number of patients treated with this medication.

Full access

Martin H. Pham, Frank J. Attenello, Joshua Lucas, Shuhan He, Christopher J. Stapleton and Patrick C. Hsieh

Object

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can result in significant myelopathy. Surgical treatment for OPLL has been extensively documented in the literature, but less data exist on conservative management of this condition.

Methods

The authors conducted a systematic review to identify all reported cases of OPLL that were conservatively managed without surgery.

Results

The review yielded 11 published studies reporting on a total of 480 patients (range per study 1–359 patients) over a mean follow-up period of 14.6 years (range 0.4–26 years). Of these 480 patients, 348 (72.5%) were without myelopathy on initial presentation, whereas 76 patients (15.8%) had signs of myelopathy; in 56 cases (15.8%), the presence of myelopathy was not specified. The mean aggregate Japanese Orthopaedic Association score on presentation for 111 patients was 15.3. Data available for 330 patients who initially presented without myelopathy showed progression to myelopathy in 55 (16.7%), whereas the other 275 (83.3%) remained progression free. In the 76 patients presenting with myelopathy, 37 (48.7%) showed clinical progression, whereas 39 (51.5%) remained clinically unchanged or improved.

Conclusions

Patients who present without myelopathy have a high chance of remaining progression free. Those who already have signs of myelopathy at presentation may benefit from surgery due to a higher rate of progression over continued follow-up.

Full access

Jason S. Cheng, Michael E. Ivan, Christopher J. Stapleton, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Nalin Gupta and Kurtis I. Auguste

Object

Intraoperative dorsal column mapping, transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) have been used in adults to assist with the resection of intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) and to predict postoperative motor deficits. The authors sought to determine whether changes in MEP and SSEP waveforms would similarly predict postoperative motor deficits in children.

Methods

The authors reviewed charts and intraoperative records for children who had undergone resection for IMSCTs as well as dorsal column mapping and TcMEP and SSEP monitoring. Motor evoked potential data were supplemented with electromyography data obtained using a Kartush microstimulator (Medtronic Inc.). Motor strength was graded using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale during the preoperative, immediate postoperative, and follow-up periods. Reductions in SSEPs were documented after mechanical traction, in response to maneuvers with the cavitational ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA), or both.

Results

Data from 12 patients were analyzed. Three lesions were encountered in the cervical and 7 in the thoracic spinal cord. Two patients had lesions of the cervicomedullary junction and upper spinal cord. Intraoperative MEP changes were noted in half of the patients. In these cases, normal polyphasic signals converted to biphasic signals, and these changes correlated with a loss of 1–2 grades in motor strength. One patient lost MEP signals completely and recovered strength to MRC Grade 4/5. The 2 patients with high cervical lesions showed neither intraoperative MEP changes nor motor deficits postoperatively. Dorsal columns were mapped in 7 patients, and the midline was determined accurately in all 7. Somatosensory evoked potentials were decreased in 7 patients. Two patients each had 2 SSEP decreases in response to traction intraoperatively but had no new sensory findings postoperatively. Another 2 patients had 3 traction-related SSEP decreases intraoperatively, and both had new postoperative sensory deficits that resolved. One additional patient had a CUSA-related SSEP decrease intraoperatively, which resolved postoperatively, and the last patient had 3 traction-related sensory deficits and a CUSA-related sensory deficit postoperatively, none of which resolved.

Conclusions

Intraoperative TcMEPs and SSEPs can predict the degree of postoperative motor deficit in pediatric patients undergoing IMSCT resection. This technique, combined with dorsal column mapping, is particularly useful in resecting lesions of the upper cervical cord, which are generally considered to be high risk in this population. Furthermore, the spinal cord appears to be less tolerant of repeated intraoperative SSEP decreases, with 3 successive insults most likely to yield postoperative sensory deficits. Changes in TcMEPs and SSEP waveforms can signal the need to guard against excessive manipulation thereby increasing the safety of tumor resection.

Full access

Matthew J. Koch, Christopher J. Stapleton, Pankaj K. Agarwalla, Collin Torok, John H. Shin, Jean-Valery Coumans, Lawrence F. Borges, Christopher S. Ogilvy, James D. Rabinov and Aman B. Patel

OBJECTIVE

Vascular malformations of the spine represent rare clinical entities with profound neurological implications. Previously reported studies on management strategies for spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (sDAVFs) appeared before the advent of modern liquid embolic agents. Authors of the present study review their institutional experience with endovascularly and surgically treated sDAVFs.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective, observational, single-center case series on sDAVFs treated with endovascular embolization, microsurgical occlusion, or both between 2004 and 2013. The mode, efficacy, and clinical effect of treatment were evaluated.

RESULTS

Forty-seven patients with spinal arteriovenous malformations were evaluated using spinal angiography, which demonstrated 34 Type I sDAVFs (thoracic 20, lumbar 12, and cervical 2). Twenty-nine of the patients (85%) were male, and the median patient age was 63.3 years. Twenty patients underwent primary endovascular embolization (16 Onyx, 4 N-butyl cyanoacrylate [NBCA]), and 14 underwent primary surgical clipping. At a mean follow-up of 36 weeks, according to angiography or MR angiography, 5 patients treated with endovascular embolization demonstrated persistent arteriovenous shunting, whereas none of the surgically treated patients showed lesion persistence (p = 0.0237). Thirty patients (88%) experienced some resolution of their presenting symptoms (embolization 17 [85%], surgery 13 [93%], p = 1.00).

CONCLUSIONS

Microsurgical occlusion remains the most definitive treatment modality for sDAVFs, though modern endovascular techniques remain a viable option for the initial treatment of anatomically amenable lesions. Treatment of these lesions usually results in some clinical improvement.