Christoph P. Hofstetter and Michael Y. Wang
Christoph P. Hofstetter, Anna S. Hofer and Allan D. Levi
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is frequently used for spinal arthrodesis procedures in an “off-label” fashion. Whereas complications related to BMP usage are well recognized, the role of dosage is less clear. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess dose-dependent effectiveness (i.e., bone fusion) and morbidity of BMP used in common spinal arthrodesis procedures. A quantitative exploratory meta-analysis was conducted on studies reporting fusion and complication rates following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior cervical fusion (PCF), anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) supplemented with BMP.
A literature search was performed to identify studies on BMP in spinal fusion procedures reporting fusion and/or complication rates. From the included studies, a database for each spinal fusion procedure, including patient demographic information, dose of BMP per level, and data regarding fusion rate and complication rates, was created. The incidence of fusion and complication rates was calculated and analyzed as a function of BMP dose. The methodological quality of all included studies was assessed according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Data were analyzed using a random-effects model. Event rates are shown as percentages, with a 95% CI.
Forty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria: ACDF (n = 7), PCF (n = 6), ALIF (n = 9), TLIF/PLIF (n = 17), and PLF (n = 9), resulting in a total of 5890 patients. In ACDF, the lowest BMP concentration analyzed (0.2–0.6 mg/level) resulted in a fusion rate similar to the highest dose (1.1–2.1 mg/level), while permitting complication rates comparable to ACDF performed without BMP. The addition of BMP to multilevel constructs significantly (p < 0.001) increased the fusion rate (98.4% [CI 95.4%–99.4%]) versus the control group fusion rate (85.8% [CI 77.4%–91.4%]). Studies on PCF were of poor quality and suggest that BMP doses of ≤ 2.1 mg/level resulted in similar fusion rates as higher doses. Use of BMP in ALIF increased fusion rates from 79.1% (CI 57.6%–91.3%) in the control cohort to 96.9% (CI 92.3%–98.8%) in the BMP-treated group (p < 0.01). The rate of complications showed a positive correlation with the BMP dose used. Use of BMP in TLIF had only a minimal impact on fusion rates (95.0% [CI 92.8%–96.5%] vs 93.0% [CI 78.1%–98.0%] in control patients). In PLF, use of ≥ 8.5 mg BMP per level led to a significant increase of fusion rate (95.2%; CI 90.1%–97.8%) compared with the control group (75.3%; CI 64.1%–84.0%, p < 0.001). BMP did not alter the rate of complications when used in PLF.
The BMP doses used for various spinal arthrodesis procedures differed greatly between studies. This study provides BMP dosing recommendations for the most common spine procedures.
Christoph P. Hofstetter, Dean Chou, C. Benjamin Newman, Henry E. Aryan, Federico P. Girardi and Roger Härtl
The purpose of this multicenter trial was to investigate the outcome and durability of a single-stage thoracolumbar corpectomy using expandable cages via a posterior approach.
The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 67 consecutive patients who underwent single-stage thoracolumbar corpectomies with circumferential reconstruction for pathological, traumatic, and osteomyelitic pathologies. Circumferential reconstruction was accomplished using expandable cages along with posterior instrumentation and fusion. Correction of the sagittal deformity, the American Spinal Injury Association score, and complications were recorded.
Single-stage thoracolumbar corpectomies resulted in an average sagittal deformity correction of 6.2° at a mean follow-period of 20.5 months. At the last follow-up, a fusion rate of 68% was observed for traumatic and osteomyelitic fractures. Approximately one-half of the patients remained neurologically stable. Improvement in neurological function occurred in 23 patients (38%), whereas 7 patients (11%) suffered from a decrease in lower-extremity motor function. The deterioration in neurological function was due to progression of metastatic disease in 5 patients. Five constructs (7%) failed—3 of which had been placed for traumatic fractures, 1 for a pathological fracture, and 1 for an osteomyelitic fracture. Other complications included epidural hematomas in 3 patients and pleural effusions in 2.
Single-stage posterior corpectomy and circumferential reconstruction were performed at multiple centers with a consistent outcome over a wide range of pathologies. Correction of the sagittal deformity was sustained, and the neurological outcome was good in the majority of patients; however, 18% of acute traumatic fractures required revision of the construct.
Christoph P. Hofstetter, Benjamin Shin, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Eric Elowitz and Roger Härtl
The paracoccygeal approach allows for instrumentation of L5/S1 and L4/5 by using a transsacral rod (AxiaLIF; TransS1, Inc.). The authors analyzed clinical and radiographic outcomes of 1- or 2-level AxiaLIF procedures with focus on durability of the construct.
This was a retrospective study of 38 consecutive patients who underwent either 1-level (32 patients) or 2-level (6 patients) AxiaLIF procedures at the authors' institution. The Oswestry Disability Index (minimum clinically important difference [MCID] ≥ 12) and visual analog scale ([VAS]; MCID ≥ 3) scores were collected. Disc height and Cobb angles were measured on pre- and postoperative radiographs. Bony fusion was determined on CT scans or flexion/extension radiographs.
Implantation of a transsacral rod allowed for intraoperative distraction of the L5/S1 intervertebral space and resulted in increased segmental lordosis postoperatively. At a mean follow-up time of 26.2 ± 2.4 months, however, graft subsidence (1.9 mm) abolished partial correction of segmental lordosis. Moreover, subsidence of the construct reduced L5/S1 lordosis in patients with 1-level AxiaLIF by 3.2° and L4–S1 lordosis in patients with 2-level procedures by 10.1° compared with preoperative values (p < 0.01). Loss of segmental lordosis predicted failure to improve VAS scores for back pain in the patient cohort (p < 0.05). Overall, surgical intervention led to modest symptomatic improvement; only 26.3% of patients achieved an MCID of the Oswestry Disability Index and 50% of patients an MCID of the VAS score for back pain. At last follow-up, 71.9% of L5/S1 levels demonstrated bony fusion (1-level AxiaLIF 80.8%, 2-level AxiaLIF 33.3%; p < 0.05), whereas none of the L4/5 levels in 2-level AxiaLIF fused. Five constructs developed pseudarthrosis and required surgical revision.
The AxiaLIF procedure constitutes a minimally invasive technique for L5/S1 instrumentation, with low perioperative morbidity. However, the axial rod provides inadequate long-term anterior column support, which leads to subsidence and loss of segmental lordosis. Modification of the transsacral technique to allow for placement of a solid interposition graft may counteract subsidence of the construct.
Lynn B. McGrath Jr., Karthik Madhavan, Lee Onn Chieng, Michael Y. Wang and Christoph P. Hofstetter
Approximately half a million spinal fusion procedures are performed annually in the US. It is estimated that up to one-third of arthrodesis constructs require revision surgeries. In this study the authors present endoscopic treatment strategies targeting 3 types of complications following arthrodesis surgery: 1) adjacent-level foraminal stenosis; 2) foraminal stenosis at an arthrodesis segment; and 3) stenosis caused by a displaced interbody cage.
A retrospective chart review of 11 patients with a mean age of 68 ± 15 years was performed (continuous variables are shown as the mean ± SEM). All patients had a history of lumbar arthrodesis surgery and suffered from unilateral radiculopathy. Endoscopic revision surgeries were done as outpatient procedures, and there were no intraoperative or perioperative complications. The cohort included 3 patients with foraminal stenosis at the level of previous arthrodesis. They presented with unilateral radicular leg pain (visual analog scale [VAS] score: 7.3 ± 2.1) and were severely disabled, as evidenced by an Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) of 46 ± 4.9. Transforaminal endoscopic foraminotomies were performed, and at a mean follow-up time of 9.0 ± 2.5 months VAS was reduced by an average of 6.3. The cohort also includes 7 patients suffering unilateral radiculopathy due to adjacent-level foraminal stenosis. Preoperative VAS for leg pain of the symptomatic side was 6.0 ± 1.6, VAS for back pain was 5.2 ± 1.7, and ODI was 40 ± 6.33. Endoscopic decompression led to reduction of the ipsilateral leg VAS score by an average of 5, resulting in leg pain of 1 ± 0.5 at an average of 8 months of follow-up. The severity of back pain remained stable (VAS 4.2 ± 1.4). Two of these patients required revision surgery for recurrent symptoms. Finally, this study includes 1 patient who presented with weakness and pain due to retropulsion of an L5/S1 interbody spacer. The patient underwent an endoscopic interlaminar approach with partial resection of the interbody cage, which resulted in complete resolution of her radicular symptoms.
Endoscopic surgery may be a useful adjunct for management of certain arthrodesis-related complications. Endoscopic foraminal decompression of previously fused segments and resection of displaced interbody cages appears to have excellent outcomes, whereas decompression of adjacent segments remains challenging and requires further investigation.
Karthik Madhavan, Lee Onn Chieng, Christoph P. Hofstetter and Michael Y. Wang
Isthmic spondylolisthesis due to pars defects resulting from trauma or spondylolysis is not uncommon. Symptomatic patients with such pars defects are traditionally treated with a variety of fusion surgeries. The authors present a unique case in which such a patient was successfully treated with endoscopic discectomy without iatrogenic destabilization.
A 31-year-old man presented with a history of left radicular leg pain along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. He had a disc herniation at L5/S1 and bilateral pars defects with a Grade I spondylolisthesis. Dynamic radiographic studies did not show significant movement of L-5 over S-1. The patient did not desire to have a fusion. After induction of local anesthesia, the patient underwent an awake transforaminal endoscopic discectomy via the extraforaminal approach, with decompression of the L-5 and S-1 nerve roots. His preoperative pain resolved immediately, and he was discharged home the same day. His preoperative Oswestry Disability Index score was 74, and postoperatively it was noted to be 8. At 2-year follow-up he continued to be symptom free, and no radiographic progression of the listhesis was noted.
In this case preservation of stabilizing structures, including the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments and the facet capsule, may have reduced the likelihood of iatrogenic instability while at the same time achieving symptom control. This may be a reasonable option for select patient symptoms confined to lumbosacral radiculopathy.
Karthik Madhavan, Lee Onn Chieng, Lynn McGrath, Christoph P. Hofstetter and Michael Y. Wang
Asymmetrical degeneration of the disc is one of the most common causes of primary degenerative scoliosis in adults. Coronal deformity is usually less symptomatic than a sagittal deformity because there is less expenditure of energy and hence less effort to maintain upright posture. However, nerve root compression at the fractional curve or at the concave side of the main curve can give rise to debilitating radiculopathy.
This study was a retrospective analysis of 16 patients with coronal deformity of between 10° and 20°. All patients underwent endoscopic foraminal decompression surgery. The pre- and postoperative Cobb angle, visual analog scale (VAS), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Oswestry Disability Index scores were measured.
The average age of the patients was 70.0 ± 15.5 years (mean ± SD, range 61–86 years), with a mean followup of 7.5 ± 5.3 months (range 2–14 months). The average coronal deformity was 16.8° ± 4.7° (range 10°–41°). In 8 patients the symptomatic foraminal stenosis was at the level of the fractional curve, and in the remaining patients it was at the concave side of the main curve. One of the patients included in the current cohort had to undergo a repeat operation within 1 week for another disc herniation at the adjacent level. One patient had CSF leakage, which was repaired intraoperatively, and no further complications were noted. On average, preoperative VAS and SF-36 scores showed a tendency for improvement, whereas a dramatic reduction of VAS, by 65% (p = 0.003), was observed in radicular leg pain.
Patients with mild to moderate spinal deformity are often compensated and have tolerable levels of back pain. However, unilateral radicular pain resulting from foraminal stenosis can be debilitating. In select cases, an endoscopic discectomy or foraminotomy enables the surgeon to decompress the symptomatic foramen with preservation of essential biomechanical structures, delaying the need for a major deformity correction surgery.
Marjan Alimi, Christoph P. Hofstetter, Se Young Pyo, Danika Paulo and Roger Härtl
Surgical decompression is the intervention of choice for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) when nonoperative treatment has failed. Standard open laminectomy is an effective procedure, but minimally invasive laminectomy through tubular retractors is an alternative. The aim of this retrospective case series was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of this procedure in patients who underwent LSS and to compare outcomes in patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis.
Patients with LSS without spondylolisthesis and with stable Grade I spondylolisthesis who had undergone minimally invasive tubular laminectomy between 2004 and 2011 were included in this analysis. Demographic, perioperative, and radiographic data were collected. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, as well as Macnab's criteria.
Among 110 patients, preoperative spondylolisthesis at the level of spinal stenosis was present in 52.5%. At a mean follow-up of 28.8 months, scoring revealed a median improvement of 16% on the ODI, 2.75 on the VAS back, and 3 on the VAS leg, compared with the preoperative baseline (p < 0.0001). The reoperation rate requiring fusion at the same level was 3.5%. Patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis had no significant differences in their clinical outcome or reoperation rate.
Minimally invasive laminectomy is an effective procedure for the treatment of LSS. Reoperation rates for instability are lower than those reported after open laminectomy. Functional improvement is similar in patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis. This procedure can be an alternative to open laminectomy. Routine fusion may not be indicated in all patients with LSS and spondylolisthesis.
Christoph P. Hofstetter, Ameet Singh, Vijay K. Anand, Ashutosh Kacker and Theodore H. Schwartz
In this paper the authors' goal was to present their clinical experience with lesions of the pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa, lateral sphenoid sinus, cavernous sinus, petrous apex, and Meckel cave using simple and extended endoscopic transpterygoid approaches to the lateral skull base.
Simple and expanded endoscopic transpterygoid approaches were performed in a series of 13 patients with varying pathology that included lateral sphenoid sinus encephaloceles, benign and malignant sinonasal tumors, and lesions of neural origin.
A gross-total resection was achieved in 5 of 9 patients, while a subtotal resection for tissue diagnosis and cytoreduction prior to further adjuvant treatment was performed in the remaining patients. Sphenoid sinus encephaloceles were successfully repaired via a transpterygoid approach in all 4 patients. The skull base defect was reconstructed using a multilayered closure. One patient developed a postoperative CSF leak, which was successfully treated conservatively. The mean follow-up time was 16 months. Five patients complained of recurrent sinusitis. One patient experienced xerophthalmia and palate numbness. Three patients had died by the time of this report. Two patients died of unrelated causes. The third patient died of progression of an aggressive pterygopalatine osteosarcoma despite undergoing cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
An endoscopic transpterygoid approach is a minimally invasive endoscopic approach for lesions located or extending to the pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa, petrous apex, Meckel cave, and other regions of the paramedian skull base.
Lynn B. McGrath Jr., Gabrielle A. White-Dzuro and Christoph P. Hofstetter
Minimally invasive lumbar unilateral tubular laminotomy for bilateral decompression has gradually gained acceptance as a less destabilizing but efficacious and safe alternative to traditional open decompression techniques. The authors have further advanced the principles of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) by utilizing working-channel endoscope–based techniques. Full-endoscopic technique allows for high-resolution off-axis visualization of neural structures within the lateral recess, thereby minimizing the need for facet joint resection. The relative efficacy and safety of MIS and full-endoscopic techniques have not been directly compared.
A retrospective analysis of 95 consecutive patients undergoing either MIS (n = 45) or endoscopic (n = 50) unilateral laminotomies for bilateral decompression in cases of lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. Patient demographics, operative details, clinical outcomes, and complications were reviewed.
The patient cohort consisted of 41 female and 54 male patients whose average age was 62 years. Half of the patients had single-level, one-third had 2-level, and the remaining patients had 3- or 4-level procedures. The surgical time for endoscopic technique was significantly longer per level compared to MIS (161.8 ± 6.8 minutes vs 99.3 ± 4.6 minutes; p < 0.001). Hospital stay for MIS patients was on average 2.4 ± 0.5 days compared to 0.7 ± 0.1 days for endoscopic patients (p = 0.001). At the 1-year follow-up, endoscopic patients had a significantly lower visual analog scale score for leg pain than MIS patients (1.3 ± 0.3 vs 3.0 ± 0.5; p < 0.01). Moreover, the back pain disability index score was significantly lower in the endoscopic cohort than in the MIS cohort (20.7 ± 3.4 vs 35.9 ± 4.1; p < 0.01). Two patients in the MIS group (epidural hematoma) and one patient in the endoscopic group (disc herniation) required a return to the operating room acutely after surgery (< 14 days).
Lumbar endoscopic unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression is a safe and effective surgical procedure with favorable complication profile and patient outcomes.