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Friedrich W. Kreth, Peter C. Warnke, Rudolf Scheremet and Christoph B. Ostertag

✓ There has been considerable controversy over the concept of treating glioblastoma multiforme with cytoreductive surgery. Therefore, a retrospective study of cases treated between 1986 and 1991 was conducted to analyze and compare the results of stereotactic biopsy followed by radiation therapy performed in 58 patients with those of surgical resection plus radiation therapy in 57 patients. In both groups, conventionally fractionated radiation (1.7 to 2.0 Gy/day) was delivered, with a total dose of 50 to 60 Gy. Biopsy was performed only in patients with tumors judged to be inoperable. These patients carried a higher surgical risk and were in worse neurological condition than the patients in the resection group.

The median survival time for the resection group was 39.5 weeks, as compared with 32 weeks for the biopsy group. This difference was not significant. The most important prognostic factor was the patient's age. The treatment variable biopsy versus resection did not reach prognostic relevance. In patients with midline shift who underwent biopsy, the Karnofsky Performance Scale score decreased in more patients during radiation therapy. The clinical status 6 weeks after surgery, however, showed no significant differences between the two groups. The comparable survival times for the two groups place doubt on the concept of treating glioblastoma multiforme with cytoreductive surgery. Presently, radiation therapy is the most effective treatment for patients with glioblastoma. There is no question that decompressive surgery followed by radiation therapy should be performed whenever necessary for severe space-occupying lesions and when it will not cause new neurological deficits.

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Friedrich W. Kreth, Michael Faist, Peter C. Warnke, Reinhard Roβner, Benedikt Volk and Christoph B. Ostertag

✓ The treatment of patients with low-grade gliomas remains a subject of controversy, especially with respect to new treatment modalities such as interstitial radiosurgery (brachytherapy), radiosurgery, and stereotactic radiotherapy. In a retrospective analysis conducted between 1979 and 1991, the authors studied the results of interstitial radiosurgery in 455 patients with low-grade gliomas (World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I + WHO Grade II) with regard to survival time, quality of life, the risk of malignant transformation, and the risk profile of the treatment concept. Interstitial radiosurgery with iodine-125 was performed using permanent (1979–1985) or temporary implants (after 1985) with low-dose rates (≤ 10 cGy/hr) and a reference dose of 60 to 100 Gy calculated to the outer rim of the tumor.

The 5- and 10-year survival rates in patients with pilocytic astrocytomas (97 patients) were 84.9% and 83%, and in patients with WHO Grade II astrocytomas (250 patients) 61% and 51%, respectively. Five-year survival rates for patients with oligoastrocytomas (60 patients), oligodendrogliomas (27 patients), and gemistocytic astrocytomas (21 patients) were 49%, 50%, and 32%, respectively. In the group with WHO Grade II gliomas, young age and a good performance status were associated with a better prognosis. Unfavorable factors were midline shift, enhancement on computerized tomography (CT) scan, and tumor recurrence after previous radiotherapy or surgery. Tumor location had no influence on the prognosis (247 patients in this series had deep-seated tumors). Malignant transformation was the major cause of death. Important risk factors for malignancy were the patient's age, tumor enhancement in CT scan, and tumor recurrence after previous surgery or radiotherapy. Perioperative mortality was 0.9% and perioperative morbidity was 1.7%. Radiogenic complications were observed in 2.7% of all patients, most often in larger tumors and after using permanent implants. The authors conclude that interstitial radiosurgery represents a specific treatment modality for selected patients with unifocal circumscribed low-grade gliomas with a diameter of less than 4 cm in any location. The efficacy of this treatment lies in the same range as the best results after surgery and radiotherapy.

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Bawarjan Schatlo, Oliver P. Gautschi, Christoph M. Friedrich, Christian Ebeling, Max Jägersberg, Zsolt Kulscar, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Karl Schaller and Philippe Bijlenga

OBJECTIVE

Although several studies have suggested that the incidence of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is higher in smokers, the higher prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in smokers remains uncertain. It is unclear whether smoking additionally contributes to the formation of multiple aneurysms and the risk of rupture. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking is associated with IA formation, multiplicity, or rupture.

METHODS

Patients from the prospective multicenter @neurIST database (n = 1410; 985 females [69.9%]) were reviewed for the presence of SAH, multiple aneurysms, and smoking status. The prevalence of smokers in the population of patients diagnosed with at least one IA was compared with that of smokers in the general population.

RESULTS

The proportion of smokers was higher in patients with IAs (56.2%) than in the reference population (51.4%; p < 0.001). A significant association of smoking with the presence of an IA was found throughout group comparisons (p = 0.01). The presence of multiple IAs was also significantly associated with smoking (p = 0.003). A trend was found between duration of smoking and the presence of multiple IAs (p = 0.057). However, the proportion of smokers among patients suffering SAH was similar to that of smokers among patients diagnosed with unruptured IAs (p = 0.48).

CONCLUSIONS

Smoking is strongly associated with IA formation. Once an IA is present, however, smoking does not appear to increase the risk of rupture compared with IAs in the nonsmoking population. The trend toward an association between duration of smoking and the presence of multiple IAs stresses the need for counseling patients with IAs regarding lifestyle modification.