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Christina Iosif, Jean-Christophe Lecomte, Eduardo Pedrolo-Silveira, George Mendes, Marie-Paule Boncoeur Martel, Suzana Saleme and Charbel Mounayer

OBJECTIVE

Even though published data exist concerning the prevalence of ischemic lesions detected by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) following endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms, a single-center cross-evaluation of the different endovascular techniques has been lacking. The authors sought to prospectively evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of ischemic lesions occurring after endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms and to compare the safety and effectiveness of a broad spectrum of currently accepted endovascular techniques in a single-center setting.

METHODS

This was a prospective cohort study involving consecutive patients treated for intracranial aneurysms exclusively by endovascular means, excluding treatments in the acute rupture phase, in a center featuring an endovascular-only treatment policy for intracranial aneurysms. All patients underwent MRI, including a 3-directional DWI sequence, before treatment, 24 hours postprocedure, and 6 months following endovascular embolization. Selective angiography was performed at 6 months’ follow-up.

RESULTS

From January 2012 through December 2013, 164 aneurysms were treated in 128 consecutive patients. Endovascular techniques included coiling (14.6%), balloon-assisted coiling (20.1%), stent-assisted coiling (3.7%), low-profile stent-assisted coiling, flow diversion (38.4%), and very complex treatments (6.1%) involving 2 stents in Y or T configurations. On postprocedure MRI, the rates of occurrence of new DWI-positive lesions were 64.3% for coiling, 54.5% for remodeling, 61.1% for stent-assisted coiling, 53.7% for flow-diverting stents, and 75% for very complex treatments (p = 0.4962). The 6-month procedure-related morbidity and mortality rates were 6.25% and 0%, respectively. At 6 months’ follow-up, 93% of the patients had modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0–2. Very complex treatments offered a higher complete occlusion rate (100%) than all other techniques (66.7%–88.9%). Age and length of procedure were independent factors for DWI lesion occurrence. The diameter of DWI lesions on 24-hour postprocedure MRI was positively correlated with mRS score at discharge. Among the DWI-positive lesions measuring less than 2 mm in diameter on the 24-hour MRI, 44.12% had regressed at 6 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Procedure-related DWI lesions are far more often encountered in silent forms than they are clinically evident. They do not seem to be significantly correlated with procedure-related complications, nor do they seem to impair clinical outcome, regardless of the endovascular technique. Small lesions (< 2 mm in diameter) may regress within 6 months. The use of the most adapted technique, in terms of aneurysm configuration, results in significant total occlusion rates, with acceptable safety.

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George A. C. Mendes, Eduardo Pedrolo Silveira, Suzana Saleme, Christina Iosif, Sanita Ponomarjova, François Caire and Charbel Mounayer

Recurrent feeders may preclude a successful arterial catheterization of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In this paper, the authors report their experience with the use of a compliant balloon to assist the microcatheter navigation in AVMs supplied by feeders with recurrent configuration.

Eight patients with AVMs supplied by recurrent feeders had unsuccessful microcatheter navigation after multiple attempts to catheterize the pedicle. A compliant balloon was inflated in the parent artery immediately after the origin of the feeder. The microcatheter was then advanced over the wire while the balloon provided support for the navigation. Distal access close to the nidus was achieved in all cases. Anatomical cure was documented in 75% cases. There were no arterial perforations or thromboembolic events.

The described technique is a straightforward method for providing support to microcatheter navigation in certain cases of cerebral AVMs supplied by recurrent arterial feeders. This simple yet effective maneuver may enhance outcomes of AVM embolization by eliminating the need for excessive attempts of catheterization.

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Christina Iosif, Yann Camilleri, Suzana Saleme, François Caire, Catherine Yardin, Sanita Ponomarjova, Marie-Paule Boncoeur-Martel and Charbel Mounayer

OBJECT

It was initially considered safe for flow-diverting stents to cover the ostia of branching vessels during endovascular procedures for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. As more recent evidence suggests, however, their use is not always free of ischemic concerns in terms of covered arterial ostia. The authors sought to determine the frequency of silent and clinically evident diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)–detected abnormalities related to stent placement as a means of elucidating potential clinical risks.

METHODS

This is a prospective single-center study on a series of patients with intracranial aneurysms that were treated with flow-diverting stents. All patients systematically underwent an MRI protocol that included DWI before treatment, between 24 and 48 hours postprocedure, and 3 months postembolization. Effectiveness of anticoagulation treatment was assessed for all patients. Lesions seen on DWI were correlated to the parent artery and the side-branch territories and were statistically analyzed in relation to their time of occurrence and clinical presentation. The authors compared the DWI findings in these patients to findings obtained in patients treated with a stent-assisted coiling technique during the same time period.

RESULTS

Over the course of 18 consecutive months, 38 consecutive patients (7 males and 31 females) with 49 intracranial aneurysms were treated using flow-diverting stents. Overall, 81.6% of the DWI spots found remained clinically silent during the follow-up period. Five ischemic clinical complications (13.2%) occurred in the postprocedural period. No statistically significant correlation could be established between DWI spots or aneurysm location and clinical complications or follow-up modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months. The complication rate was 7.8% (n = 3) at the 3-month follow-up, and mortality was 0%. Compared with stent-assisted coiling, use of flow-diverting stents showed a statistically significant correlation with silent DWI findings postintervention.

CONCLUSIONS

Lesions seen on DWI resulting from the procedure are far more common than anticipated, but the technique remains safe and effective, providing an interesting alternative for “difficult” aneurysms, regardless of location. Late-occurring DWI-detected lesions distal to side arterial branches imply a local pressure gradient drop, related to flow competition by collateral networks. Further research is needed to assess the extent and significance of these events.

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Christina Iosif, Georges A. C. Mendes, Suzana Saleme, Sanita Ponomarjova, Eduardo Pedrolo Silveira, Francois Caire and Charbel Mounayer

OBJECT

Ruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with deep localization and high Spetzler-Martin grades are associated with considerable challenges regarding nidus eradication treatment. The authors report their experience with curative endovascular transvenous embolization in a series of patients harboring “untreatable” lesions.

METHODS

Between January 2008 and June 2013, a transvenous endovascular embolization protocol was implemented at the authors' institution for consecutive patients with ruptured brain AVMs that were considered incurable by classic endovascular and surgical techniques. Therapeutic decision making was based on Spetzler-Martin grades, AVM location, type of venous drainage, and angioarchitectural evaluation. Complete exclusion of the nidus was the objective of treatment.

RESULTS

Twenty patients (10 male and 10 female, mean age 36.7 ± 17.7 years) were included. Initial Spetzler-Martin grades were III–V for 90.0% of the patients. The lesions were deeply seated in 80% and in eloquent locations in 90% of cases. The preprocedural modified Rankin Scale score was 0–2 for 12 of the 20 patients (60.0%), 3 for 2 patients (10.0%), and 4 for 6 patients (30.0%). The postprocedural clinical status was unchanged for all patients. The procedure was technically feasible in all cases. Procedure-related mortality was 0%. Ninety percent of the patients were independent in their everyday lives (modified Rankin Scale Scores 0–2) at the 6-month follow-up. In all cases but one (95%) the embolization was curative, confirmed by selective DSA at 6 months and 18 months postintervention.

CONCLUSIONS

Single-session endovascular transvenous embolization seems to be a safe and effective curative treatment for patients harboring complex brain AVMs with high Spetzler-Martin grade.

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Christina Iosif, Philipp Berg, Sebastien Ponsonnard, Pierre Carles, Suzana Saleme, Eduardo Pedrolo-Silveira, Georges Mendes, Eduardo Waihrich, Gilles Trolliard, Claude-Yves Couquet, Catherine Yardin and Charbel Mounayer

OBJECTIVE

The authors describe herein the creation of an animal model capable of producing quantifiable data regarding blood flow rate and velocity modifications in terminal and anastomotic types of cerebrofacial circulation. They also present the preliminary results of a translational study aimed at investigating the role of terminal and anastomotic types of circulation in arterial branches jailed by flow-diverting stents as factors contributing to arterial patency or occlusion.

METHODS

Two Large White swine were used to validate a terminal-type arterial model at the level of the right ascending pharyngeal artery (APhA), created exclusively by endovascular means. Subsequently 4 Large White swine, allocated to 2 groups corresponding to the presence (Group B) or absence (Group A) of terminal-type flow modification, underwent placement of flow-diverting stents. Blood flow rates and velocities were quantified using a dedicated time-resolved 3D phase-contrast MRA sequence before and after stenting. Three months after stent placement, the stented arteries were evaluated with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Patent (circulating) ostia quantification was performed on the SEM images.

RESULTS

Terminal-type flow modification was feasible; an increase of 75.8% in mean blood velocities was observed in the right APhAs. The mean blood flow rate for Group A was 0.31 ± 0.19 ml/sec (95% CI −1.39 to 2.01) before stenting and 0.21 ± 0.07 ml/sec (95% CI −0.45 to 0.87) after stenting. The mean blood flow rate for Group B was 0.87 ± 0.32 ml/sec (95% CI −1.98 to 3.73) before stenting and 0.76 ± 0.13 ml/sec (95% CI −0.41 to 1.93) after stenting. Mean flow rates after stenting showed a statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (Welch test). Mean and maximal blood velocities were reduced in Group A cases and did not decrease in Group B cases. Control DSA and SEM findings showed near occlusion of the jailed APhAs in both cases of anastomotic circulation (mean patent ostium surface 32,776 μm2) and patency in both cases of terminal-type circulation (mean patent ostium surface 422,334 μm2).

CONCLUSIONS

Terminal-type arterial modification in swine APhAs is feasible. Sufficient data were acquired to perform an a priori analysis for further research. Flow diversion at the level of the APhA ostium resulted in significant stenosis in cases of anastomotic circulation, while sufficient patency was observed in terminal-type circulation.

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Frédéric Clarençon, Federico Di Maria, Evelyne Cormier, Nader-Antoine Sourour, Eric Enkaoua, Frédéric Sailhan, Christina Iosif, Lise Le Jean and Jacques Chiras

Presurgical devascularization of hypervascular spinal metastases has been shown to be effective in preventing major blood loss during open surgery. Most often, embolization can be performed using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microparticles. However, in some cases, the close relationship between the feeders of the metastases and the feeders of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) poses a risk of spinal cord ischemia when PVA microparticle embolization is performed.

The authors present their early experience in the treatment of spinal metastases close to the ASA; in 2 cases they injected Onyx-18, by direct puncture, into hypervascular posterior arch spinal metastases situated close to the ASA.

Two women, one 36 and the other 55 years of age, who presented with spinal lesions (at the posterior arch of C-4 and T-6, respectively) from thyroid and a kidney tumors, were sent to the authors' department to undergo presurgical embolization. After having performed a complete spinal digital subtraction angiography study, a regular angiography catheter was positioned at the ostium of the artery that mainly supplied the lesion. Then, with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position, direct puncture with 18-gauge needles of the lesion was performed using roadmap guidance. Onyx-18 was injected through the needles under biplanar fluoroscopy.

Satisfactory devascularization of the lesions was obtained; the ASA remained patent in both cases. The metastases were surgically removed in both cases within the 48 hours after the embolization and major blood loss did not occur.

Presurgical devascularization of hypervascular spinal metastases close the ASA by direct puncture with Onyx-18 seems to be an effective technique and appears to be safe in terms of the preserving the ASA's patency.

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Christina Iosif, Philipp Berg, Sebastien Ponsonnard, Pierre Carles, Suzana Saleme, Sanita Ponomarjova, Eduardo Pedrolo-Silveira, George A. C. Mendes, Eduardo Waihrich, Gilles Trolliard, Claude-Yves Couquet, Catherine Yardin and Charbel Mounayer

OBJECTIVE

The outcome for jailing arterial branches that emerge near intracranial aneurysms during flow-diverting stent (FDS) deployment remains controversial. In this animal study, the authors aimed to elucidate the role of collateral supply with regard to the hemodynamic changes and neointimal modifications that occur from jailing arteries with FDSs. To serve this purpose, the authors sought to quantify 1) the hemodynamic changes that occur at the jailed arterial branches immediately after stent placement and 2) the ostia surface values at 3 months after stenting; both parameters were investigated in the presence or absence of collateral arterial flow.

METHODS

After an a priori power analysis, 2 groups (Group A and Group B) were created according to an animal flow model for terminal and anastomotic arterial circulation; each group contained 7 Large White swine. Group A animals possessed an anastomotic-type arterial configuration to supply the territory of the right ascending pharyngeal artery (APhA), while Group B animals possessed a terminal-type arterial configuration to supply the right APhA territory. Subsequently, all animals underwent FDS placement, thereby jailing the right APhAs. Mean flow rates and velocities inside the jailed branches were quantified using time-resolved 3D phase-contrast MR angiography before and after stenting. Three months after stent placement, the jailed ostia surface values were quantified on scanning electron micrographs. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and group comparisons with parametric and nonparametric tests.

RESULTS

The endovascular procedures were feasible, and there were no findings of in situ thrombus formation on postprocedural optical coherence tomography or ischemia on postprocedural diffusion-weighted imaging. In Group A, the mean flow rate values at the jailed right APhAs were reduced immediately following stent placement as compared with values obtained before stent placement (p = 0.02, power: 0.8). In contrast, the mean poststenting flow rates for Group B remained similar to those obtained before stent placement. Three months after stent placement, the mean ostia surface values were significantly higher for Group B (527,911 ± 306,229 μm2) than for Group A (89,329 ± 59,762 μm2; p < 0.01, power: 1.00), even though the initial dimensions of the jailed ostia were similar between groups. A statistically significant correlation was found between groups (A or B), mean flow rates after stent placement, and ostia surface values at 3 months.

CONCLUSIONS

When an important collateral supply was present, the jailing of side arteries with flow diverters resulted in an immediate and significant reduction in the flow rate inside these arteries as compared with the prestenting values. In contrast, when competitive flow was absent, jailing did not result in significant flow rate reductions inside the jailed arteries. Ostium surface values at 3 months after stent placement were significantly higher in the terminal group of jailed arteries (Group B) than in the anastomotic group (Group A) and strongly correlated with poststenting reductions in the velocity value.