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Michael Putzier, Patrick Strube, Julia Funk, Christian Gross, and Carsten Perka


Despite modern stabilization techniques and the use of autologous cancellous bone, bone consolidation does not occur in 10–15% of spinal fusion operations. There is also considerable donor site morbidity. Therefore, there is a definite need for material that has a larger measure of osteoinductivity, osteoconductivity, and osteogenic potential.


In this study, 24 patients with degenerative spinal disease underwent single-level circumferential lumbar fusion. The patients were randomly placed in 2 groups, each with different cage filling (Group 1, autologous iliac crest cancellous bone; Group 2, autologous periosteal cells in a fibrin/polyglactin-poly-p-dioxanone fleece). After 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, the patients underwent clinical (Oswestry Disability Index, patient satisfaction, willingness to undergo the operation again, visual analog scale for pain) and radiological (plain and flexion/extension radiographic and thin-layer computed tomography [CT]) examinations.


The 6-month CT scans and 9-month radiographs obtained in Group 2 patients showed a significantly higher rate of fusion than those in Group 1 patients. Aside from this, there were no further significant differences. After 12 months, radiographic results showed a fusion rate of 80% in Group 1 and 90% in Group 2. No implant- or transplant-related complications were observed.


The use of autologous periosteal cells on carrier material with osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties showed comparable results with autologous cancellous bone and better results with regard to consolidation at 6–9 months postoperatively. The shorter consolidation time, as well as lower donor site morbidity, justifies the clinical use and further development of this tissue-engineering strategy.

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Christian Gross, Alain Rougier, Dominique Guehl, Thomas Boraud, Jean Julien, and Bernard Bioulac

✓ The effectiveness of ventroposterolateral pallidotomy in the treatment of akinesia and rigidity is not a new discovery and agrees with recent investigations into the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, which highlight the role played by the unbridled activity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the consequent overactivity of the globus pallidus internalis (GPi). Because high-frequency stimulation can reversibly incapacitate a nerve structure, we applied stimulation to the same target.

Seven patients suffering from severe Parkinson's disease (Stages III–V on the Hoehn and Yahr scale) and, particularly, bradykinesia, rigidity, and levodopa-induced dyskinesias underwent unilateral electrode implantation in the posteroventral GPi. Follow-up evaluation using the regular Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale has been conducted for 1 year in all seven patients, 2 years in five of them, and 3 years in one. In all cases high-frequency stimulation has alleviated akinesia and rigidity and has generally improved gait and speech disturbances. In some cases tremor was attenuated. In a similar manner, the authors observed a marked diminution in levodopa-induced dyskinesias. This could be an excellent primary therapy for younger patients exhibiting severe bradykinesia, rigidity, and levodopa-induced dyskinesias, which would allow therapists to keep ventroposterolateral pallidotomy in reserve as a second weapon.

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Cameron A. Elliott, Hayden Danyluk, Keith E. Aronyk, Karolyn Au, B. Matt Wheatley, Donald W. Gross, Tejas Sankar, and Christian Beaulieu


Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography is commonly used in neurosurgical practice but is largely limited to the preoperative setting. This is due primarily to image degradation caused by susceptibility artifact when conventional single-shot (SS) echo-planar imaging (EPI) DTI (SS-DTI) is acquired for open cranial, surgical position intraoperative DTI (iDTI). Readout-segmented (RS) EPI DTI (RS-DTI) has been reported to reduce such artifact but has not yet been evaluated in the intraoperative MRI (iMRI) environment. The authors evaluated the performance of RS versus SS EPI for DTI of the human brain in the iMRI setting.


Pre- and intraoperative 3-T 3D T1-weighted and 2D multislice RS-iDTI (called RESOLVE [readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains] on the Siemens platform) and SS-iDTI images were acquired in 22 adult patients undergoing intraaxial iMRI resections for suspected low-grade glioma (14; 64%), high-grade glioma (7; 32%), or focal cortical dysplasia. Regional susceptibility artifact, anatomical deviation relative to T1-weighted imaging, and tractographic output for surgically relevant tracts were compared between iDTI sequences as well as the intraoperative tract shifts from preoperative DTI.


RS-iDTI resulted in qualitatively less regional susceptibility artifact (resection cavity, orbitofrontal and anterior temporal cortices) and mean anatomical deviation in regions most prone to susceptibility artifact (RS-iDTI 2.7 ± 0.2 vs SS-iDTI 7.5 ± 0.4 mm) compared to SS-iDTI. Although tract reconstruction success did not significantly differ by DTI method, susceptibility artifact–related tractography failure (of at least 1 surgically relevant tract) occurred for SS-iDTI in 8/22 (36%) patients, and in 5 of these 8 patients RS-iDTI permitted successful reconstruction. Among cases with successful tractography for both sequences, maximal intersequence differences were substantial (mean 9.5 ± 5.7 mm, range −27.1 to 18.7 mm).


RS EPI enables higher quality and more accurate DTI for surgically relevant tractography of major white matter tracts in intraoperative, open cranium neurosurgical applications at 3 T.

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Emmanuel Cuny, Dominique Guehl, Pierre Burbaud, Christian Gross, Vincent Dousset, and Alain Rougier

Object. The goal of this study was to determine the most suitable procedure(s) to localize the optimal site for high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for the treatment of advanced Parkinson disease.

Methods. Stereotactic coordinates of the STN were determined in 14 patients by using three different methods: direct identification of the STN on coronal and axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and indirect targeting in which the STN coordinates are referred to the anterior commissure—posterior commissure (AC—PC) line, which, itself, is determined either by using stereotactic ventriculography or reconstruction from three-dimensional (3D) MR images. During the surgical procedure, electrode implantation was guided by single-unit microrecordings on multiple parallel trajectories and by clinical assessment of stimulations. The site where the optimal functional response was obtained was considered to be the best target. Computerized tomography scanning was performed 3 days later and the scans were combined with preoperative 3D MR images to transfer the position of the best target to the same system of stereotactic coordinates. An algorithm was designed to convert individual stereotactic coordinates into an all-purpose PC-referenced system for comparing the respective accuracy of each method of targeting, according to the position of the best target.

Conclusions. The target that is directly identified by MR imaging is more remote (mainly in the lateral axis) from the site of the optimal functional response than targets obtained using other procedures, and the variability of this method in the lateral and superoinferior axes is greater. In contrast, the target defined by 3D MR imaging is closest to the target of optimal functional response and the variability of this method is the least great. Thus, 3D reconstruction adjusted to the AC—PC line is the most accurate technique for STN targeting, whereas direct visualization of the STN on MR images is the least effective. Electrophysiological guidance makes it possible to correct the inherent inaccuracy of the imaging and surgical techniques and is not designed to modify the initial targeting.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010