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Chitra Sarkar, V. S. Mehta and Subimal Roy

✓ A rare case of a solitary schwannoma arising within the cerebellum is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining.

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Ramachandra G. Naik, Ariachery Ammini, Pankaj Shah, Chitra Sarkar, Veer Singh Mehta and Manorama Berry

✓ A case of lymphocytic hypophysitis is described in a patient presenting with panhypopituitarism 8 years after her last childbirth. The patient developed headache, vomiting, and diplopia (due to palsy of the right lateral rectus muscle) 7 months after delivery of her last baby. The diplopia disappeared after a few days with symptomatic treatment, and the headache and vomiting decreased in intensity with analgesic therapy. Eight years later the patient developed symptoms suggestive of hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism, and amenorrhea. Investigations revealed panhypopituitarism with a pituitary mass lesion. Repeat evaluation 1 year later demonstrated no change in the size of the pituitary gland. The patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery with a provisional diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. Histological examination of the resected gland revealed evidence of lymphocytic hypophysitis. Symptoms suggestive of a pituitary mass lesion were noted during the peripartum period, but features of hypopituitarism developed much later. Such a long latent period has not been reported before. This report also highlights the fact that glandular enlargement may persist for many years after the onset of lymphocytic hypophysitis.

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Mehar Chand Sharma, Chitra Sarkar, Deepali Jain, Vaishali Suri, Ajay Garg and Sandeep Vaishya

✓The presence of müllerian-origin tissue in the lumbosacral region is extremely uncommon. The authors report two cases of müllerian-origin tissue in that region. In the first case a 33-year-old woman harbored a conus medullaris mass lesion. Spinal dysraphism, tethered cord syndrome (TCS), and diastematomyelia were also present. In the second case a 24-year-old woman presented with low-back pain and a conus medullaris lesion, which was a cause of the TCS. Pathological examination in both cases revealed a uterus-like structure with evidence of fresh and old hemorrhage. The rarity of this lesion and its association with diastematomyelia requires documentation.

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Aanchal Kakkar, Mehar C. Sharma, Nishant Goyal, Chitra Sarkar, Vaishali Suri, Ajay Garg, Shashank S. Kale and Ashish Suri

Meningeal fibromas are rare intracranial tumors that mimic meningiomas radiologically as well as histologically. The authors report 2 cases of meningeal fibroma with detailed clinical, radiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features, and discuss the differential diagnosis of this entity. Knowledge of this rare tumor is essential for pathologists to be able distinguish it from more common meningeal tumors, especially in younger patients. This knowledge is also essential for neurosurgeons, as incomplete resection may lead to tumor recurrence, and such patients require close follow-up.

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P. Sarat Chandra, Heri Subianto, Jitin Bajaj, Shabari Girishan, Ramesh Doddamani, Bhargavi Ramanujam, Mahendra Singh Chouhan, Ajay Garg, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar S. Bal, Chitra Sarkar, Rekha Dwivedi, Savita Sapra and Manjari Tripathi

OBJECTIVE

Endoscope-assisted hemispherotomy (EH) has emerged as a good alternative option for hemispheric pathologies with drug-resistant epilepsy.

METHODS

This was a prospective observational study. Parameters measured included primary outcome measures (frequency, severity of seizures) and secondary outcomes (cognition, behavior, and quality of life). Blood loss, operating time, complications, and hospital stay were also taken into account. A comparison was made between the open hemispherotomy (OH) and endoscopic techniques performed by the senior author.

RESULTS

Of 59 cases (42 males), 27 underwent OH (8 periinsular, the rest vertical) and 32 received EH. The mean age was 8.65 ± 5.41 years (EH: 8.6 ± 5.3 years; OH: 8.6 ± 5.7 years). Seizure frequency per day was 7 ± 5.9 (EH: 7.3 ± 4.6; OH: 15.0 ± 6.2). Duration of disease (years since first episode) was 3.92 ± 1.24 years (EH: 5.2 ± 4.3; OH: 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Number of antiepileptic drugs per patient was 3.9 ± 1.2 (EH: 4.2 ± 1.2; OH: 3.8 ± 0.98). Values for the foregoing variables are expressed as the mean ± SD. Pathologies included the following: postinfarct encephalomalacia in 19 (EH: 11); Rasmussen’s syndrome in 14 (EH: 7); hemimegalencephaly in 12 (EH: 7); hemispheric cortical dysplasia in 7 (EH: 4); postencephalitis sequelae in 6 (EH: 2); and Sturge-Weber syndrome in 1 (EH: 1). The mean follow-up was 40.16 ± 17.3 months. Thirty-nine of 49 (79.6%) had favorable outcomes (International League Against Epilepsy class I and II): in EH the total was 19/23 (82.6%) and in OH it was 20/26 (76.9%). There was no difference in the primary outcome between EH and OH (p = 0.15). Significant improvement was seen in the behavioral/quality of life performance, but not in IQ scores in both EH and OH (p < 0.01, no intergroup difference). Blood loss (p = 0.02) and hospital stay (p = 0.049) were less in EH.

CONCLUSIONS

EH was as effective as the open procedure in terms of primary and secondary outcomes. It also resulted in less blood loss and a shorter postoperative hospital stay.

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Amol Raheja, Vaishali Suri, Ashish Suri, Chitra Sarkar, Arti Srivastava, Sujata Mohanty, Krishan G. Jain, Meher C. Sharma, Hruda N. Mallick, Pradeep K. Yadav, Mani Kalaivani and Ravindra M. Pandey

Object

Bone marrow–derived stem cells enhance the rate of regeneration of neuronal cells leading to clinical improvement in nerve injury, spinal cord injury, and brain infarction. Recent experiments in the local application of bone marrow–derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) in models of sciatic nerve transection in rats have suggested their beneficial role in nerve regeneration, although the effects of variable doses of stem cells on peripheral nerve regeneration have never been specifically evaluated in the literature. In this paper, the authors evaluated the dose-dependent role of BM-MNCs in peripheral nerve regeneration in a model of sciatic nerve transection in rats.

Methods

The right sciatic nerve of 60 adult female Wistar rats (randomized into 2 test groups and 1 control group, 20 rats in each group) underwent transection under an operating microscope. The cut ends of the nerve were approximated using 2 epineural microsutures. The gap was filled with low-dose (5 million BM-MNCs/100 μl phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) rat BM-MNCs in one group, high-dose (10 million BM-MNCs/100 μl PBS) rat BM-MNCs in another group, and only PBS in the control group, and the approximated nerve ends were sealed using fibrin glue. Histological assessment was performed after 30 days by using semiquantitative and morphometric analyses and was done to assess axonal regeneration, percentage of myelinated fibers, axonal diameter, fiber diameter, and myelin thickness at distal-most sites (10 mm from site of repair), intermediate distal sites (5 mm distal to the repair site), and site of repair.

Results

The recovery of nerve cell architecture after nerve anastomosis was far better in the high-dose BM-MNC group than in the low-dose BM-MNC and control groups, and it was most evident (p < 0.02 in the majority of the parameters [3 of 4]) at the distal-most site. Overall, the improvement in myelin thickness was most significant with incremental dosage of BM-MNCs, and was evident at the repair, intermediate distal, and distal-most sites (p = 0.001).

Conclusions

This study emphasizes the role of BM-MNCs, which can be isolated easily from bone marrow aspirates, in peripheral nerve injury and highlights their dose-dependent facilitation of nerve regeneration.

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P. Sarat Chandra, Heri Subianto, Jitin Bajaj, Shabari Girishan, Ramesh Doddamani, Bhargavi Ramanujam, Mahendra Singh Chouhan, Ajay Garg, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar S. Bal, Chitra Sarkar, Rekha Dwivedi, Savita Sapra and Manjari Tripathi

OBJECTIVE

Endoscope-assisted hemispherotomy (EH) has emerged as a good alternative option for hemispheric pathologies with drug-resistant epilepsy.

METHODS

This was a prospective observational study. Parameters measured included primary outcome measures (frequency, severity of seizures) and secondary outcomes (cognition, behavior, and quality of life). Blood loss, operating time, complications, and hospital stay were also taken into account. A comparison was made between the open hemispherotomy (OH) and endoscopic techniques performed by the senior author.

RESULTS

Of 59 cases (42 males), 27 underwent OH (8 periinsular, the rest vertical) and 32 received EH. The mean age was 8.65 ± 5.41 years (EH: 8.6 ± 5.3 years; OH: 8.6 ± 5.7 years). Seizure frequency per day was 7 ± 5.9 (EH: 7.3 ± 4.6; OH: 15.0 ± 6.2). Duration of disease (years since first episode) was 3.92 ± 1.24 years (EH: 5.2 ± 4.3; OH: 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Number of antiepileptic drugs per patient was 3.9 ± 1.2 (EH: 4.2 ± 1.2; OH: 3.8 ± 0.98). Values for the foregoing variables are expressed as the mean ± SD. Pathologies included the following: postinfarct encephalomalacia in 19 (EH: 11); Rasmussen’s syndrome in 14 (EH: 7); hemimegalencephaly in 12 (EH: 7); hemispheric cortical dysplasia in 7 (EH: 4); postencephalitis sequelae in 6 (EH: 2); and Sturge-Weber syndrome in 1 (EH: 1). The mean follow-up was 40.16 ± 17.3 months. Thirty-nine of 49 (79.6%) had favorable outcomes (International League Against Epilepsy class I and II): in EH the total was 19/23 (82.6%) and in OH it was 20/26 (76.9%). There was no difference in the primary outcome between EH and OH (p = 0.15). Significant improvement was seen in the behavioral/quality of life performance, but not in IQ scores in both EH and OH (p < 0.01, no intergroup difference). Blood loss (p = 0.02) and hospital stay (p = 0.049) were less in EH.

CONCLUSIONS

EH was as effective as the open procedure in terms of primary and secondary outcomes. It also resulted in less blood loss and a shorter postoperative hospital stay.