Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 40 items for

  • Author or Editor: Ching-Jen Chen x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Ching-Jen Chen, Dwight Saulle, Kai-Ming Fu, Justin S. Smith and Christopher I. Shaffrey

Object

This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors associated with the development of dysphagia following same-day combined anterior-posterior cervical spine surgeries.

Methods

The records of 30 consecutive patients who underwent same-day combined anterior-posterior cervical spine surgery were reviewed. The presence of dysphagia was assessed by a formalized screening protocol using history/clinical presentation and a bedside swallowing test, followed by formal evaluation by speech and language pathologists and/or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing/modified barium swallow when necessary. Age, sex, previous cervical surgeries, diagnoses, duration of procedure, specific vertebral levels and number of levels operated on, degree of sagittal curve correction, use of anterior plate, estimated blood loss, use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and length of hospital stay following procedures were analyzed.

Results

In the immediate postoperative period, 13 patients (43.3%) developed dysphagia. Outpatient follow-up data were available for 11 patients with dysphagia, and within this subset, all cases of dysphagia resolved subjectively within 12 months following surgery. The mean numbers of anterior levels surgically treated in patients with and without dysphagia were 5.1 and 4.0, respectively (p = 0.004). All patients (100%) with dysphagia had an anterior procedure that extended above C-4, compared with 58.8% of patients without dysphagia (p = 0.010). Patients with dysphagia had significantly greater mean correction of C2–7 lordosis than patients without dysphagia (p = 0.020). The postoperative sagittal occiput–C2 angle and the change in this angle were not significantly associated with the occurrence of dysphagia (p = 0.530 and p = 0.711, respectively). Patients with postoperative dysphagia had significantly longer hospital stays than those who did not develop dysphagia (p = 0.004). No other significant difference between the dysphagia and no-dysphagia groups was identified; differences with respect to history of previous anterior cervical surgery (p = 0.141), use of an anterior plate (p = 0.613), and mean length of anterior cervical operative time (p = 0.541) were not significant.

Conclusions

The incidence of dysphagia following combined anterior-posterior cervical surgery in this study was comparable to that of previous reports. The risk factors for dysphagia that were identified in this study were increased number of anterior levels exposed, anterior surgery that extended above C-4, and increased surgical correction of C2–7 lordosis.

Full access

Thomas J. Buell, Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen and Bhiken I. Naik

Full access

Cheng-Chia Lee, Ching-Jen Chen, Benjamin Ball, David Schlesinger, Zhiyuan Xu, Chun-Po Yen and Jason Sheehan

OBJECT

Onyx, an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer mixed in a dimethyl sulfoxide solvent, is currently one of the most widely used liquid materials for embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The goal of this study was to define the risks and benefits of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients who have previously undergone partial AVM embolization with Onyx.

METHODS

Among a consecutive series of 199 patients who underwent SRS between January 2007 and December 2012 at the University of Virginia, 25 patients had Onyx embolization prior to SRS (the embolization group). To analyze the obliteration rates and complications, 50 patients who underwent SRS without prior embolization (the no-embolization group) were matched by propensity score method. The matched variables included age, sex, nidus volume before SRS, margin dose, Spetzler-Martin grade, Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale score, and median imaging follow-up period.

RESULTS

After Onyx embolization, 18 AVMs were reduced in size. Total obliteration was achieved in 6 cases (24%) at a median of 27.5 months after SRS. In the no-embolization group, total obliteration was achieved in 20 patients (40%) at a median of 22.4 months after SRS. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated obliteration rates of 17.7% and 34.1% in the embolization group at 2 and 4 years, respectively. In the no-embolization group, the corresponding obliteration rates were 27.0% and 55.9%. The between-groups difference in obliteration rates after SRS did not achieve statistical significance. The difference in complications, including adverse radiation effects, hemorrhage episodes, seizure control, and patient mortality also did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS

Onyx embolization can effectively reduce the size of many AVMs. This case-control study did not show any statistically significant difference in the rates of embolization or complications after SRS in patients who had previously undergone Onyx embolization and those who had not.

Full access

Davis G. Taylor, Thomas J. Buell, Tony R. Wang, Matthew J. Shepard, Dominic Maggio, Ching-Jen Chen, Min S. Park and Mark E. Shaffrey

Free access

Adeel Ilyas, Ching-Jen Chen, Dale Ding, Andrew Romeo, Thomas J. Buell, Tony R. Wang, M. Yashar S. Kalani and Min S. Park

Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and a significant source of long-term morbidity. Unfortunately, a substantial number of stroke patients either are ineligible or do not significantly benefit from contemporary medical and interventional therapies. To address this void, investigators recently made technological advances to render transcranial MR-guided, high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRg-HIFU) sonolysis a potential therapeutic option for both acute ischemic stroke (AIS)—as an alternative for patients with emergent large-vessel occlusion (ELVO) who are ineligible for endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) or as salvage therapy for patients in whom EMT fails—and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)—as a neoadjuvant means of clot lysis prior to surgical evacuation. Herein, the authors review the technological principles behind MRg-HIFU sonolysis, its results in in vitro and in vivo stroke models, and its potential clinical applications. As a noninvasive transcranial technique that affords rapid clot lysis, MRg-HIFU thrombolysis may develop into a therapeutic option for patients with AIS or ICH. However, additional studies of transcranial MRg-HIFU are necessary to ascertain the merit of this treatment approach for thrombolysis in both AIS and ICH, as well as its technical limitations and risks.

Full access

Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell, Min S. Park, J. Javier Provencio and M. Yashar S. Kalani

Full access

Adeel Ilyas, Ching-Jen Chen, Dale Ding, Davis G. Taylor, Shayan Moosa, Cheng-Chia Lee, Or Cohen-Inbar and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Several recent studies have improved our understanding of the outcomes of volume-staged (VS) and dose-staged (DS) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of large (volume > 10 cm3) brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In light of these recent additions to the literature, the aim of this systematic review is to provide an updated comparison of VS-SRS and DS-SRS for large AVMs.

METHODS

A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed to identify cohorts of 5 or more patients with large AVMs who had been treated with VS-SRS or DS-SRS. Baseline data and post-SRS outcomes were extracted for analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 11 VS-SRS and 10 DS-SRS studies comprising 299 and 219 eligible patients, respectively, were included for analysis. The mean obliteration rates for VS-SRS and DS-SRS were 41.2% (95% CI 31.4%–50.9%) and 32.3% (95% CI 15.9%–48.8%), respectively. Based on pooled individual patient data, the outcomes for patients treated with VS-SRS were obliteration in 40.3% (110/273), symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RICs) in 13.7% (44/322), post-SRS hemorrhage in 19.5% (50/256), and death in 7.4% (24/323); whereas the outcomes for patients treated with DS-SRS were obliteration in 32.7% (72/220), symptomatic RICs in 12.2% (31/254), post-SRS hemorrhage in 10.6% (30/282), and death in 4.6% (13/281).

CONCLUSIONS

Volume-staged SRS appears to afford higher obliteration rates than those achieved with DS-SRS, although with a less favorable complication profile. Therefore, VS-SRS or DS-SRS may be a reasonable treatment approach for large AVMs, either as stand-alone therapy or as a component of a multimodality management strategy.

Full access

Panagiotis Mastorakos, Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas Buell, Joseph H. Donahue and John A. Jane Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Cavernous sinus invasion (CSI) in Cushing’s disease (CD) negatively affects the probability of complete resection, biochemical cure, and need for adjuvant therapy. However, the prediction of CSI based on MRI findings has been inconsistent and variable. Among macroadenomas, the Knosp classification is the most widely utilized radiographic predictor of CSI, but its accuracy in predicting CSI and the probability of gross-total resection is limited in the setting of microadenomas or Knosp grade 0–2 macroadenomas. The authors noticed that the presence of a triangular shape of adenomas adjacent to the cavernous sinus on coronal MR images is frequently associated with CSI. The authors aimed to determine the correlation of this radiographic finding (“sail sign” [SS]) with CSI.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients with a pituitary lesion < 20 mm and a biochemical diagnosis of CD treated with endoscopic or microscopic transsphenoidal resection from November 2007 to May 2017. Overall 185 patients with CD were identified: 27 were excluded for negative preoperative imaging, 32 for lacking tumors adjacent to the sinus, 7 for Knosp grade 3 or higher, and 4 for inadequate intraoperative assessment of the CSI. Following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 115 cases were available for statistical analysis. Intraoperative CSI was prospectively evaluated at the time of surgery by one of two neurosurgical attending surgeons, and MRI data were evaluated retrospectively by a neurosurgical resident and attending neuroradiologist blinded to the intraoperative results.

RESULTS

A positive SS was identified in 23 patients (20%). Among patients with positive SS, 91% demonstrated CSI compared to 10% without an SS (p < 0.001). Using the SS as a predictor of CSI provided a sensitivity of 0.7 and a specificity of 0.98, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.91 and a negative predictive value of 0.9. Among patients with positive SS, 30% did not achieve immediate postoperative remission, compared to 3.3% of patients without an SS (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The presence of a positive SS among Cushing’s adenomas adjacent to the CS provides strong PPV, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for the prediction of CSI. This can be a useful tool for preoperative planning and for predicting the likelihood of long-term biochemical remission and the need for adjuvant radiosurgery.

Free access

Ching-Jen Chen, Pedro Norat, Dale Ding, George A. C. Mendes, Petr Tvrdik, Min S. Park and M. Yashar Kalani

Endovascular embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is conventionally performed from a transarterial approach. Transarterial AVM embolization can be a standalone treatment or, more commonly, used as a neoadjuvant therapy prior to microsurgery or stereotactic radiosurgery. In contrast to the transarterial approach, curative embolization of AVMs may be more readily achieved from a transvenous approach. Transvenous embolization is considered a salvage therapy in contemporary AVM management. Proposed indications for this approach include a small (diameter < 3 cm) and compact AVM nidus, deep AVM location, hemorrhagic presentation, single draining vein, lack of an accessible arterial pedicle, exclusive arterial supply by perforators, and en passage feeding arteries. Available studies of transvenous AVM embolization in the literature have reported high complete obliteration rates, with reasonably low complication rates. However, evaluating the efficacy and safety of this approach is challenging due to the limited number of published cases. In this review the authors describe the technical considerations, indications, and outcomes of transvenous AVM embolization.

Restricted access

Davis G. Taylor, Ajay Chatrath, Panagiotis Mastorakos, Gabriella Paisan, Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell and John A. Jane Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Syringogenesis in Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is thought to occur secondary to impaction of the cerebellar tonsils within the foramen magnum (FM). However, the correlation between the CSF area and syringogenesis has yet to be elucidated. The authors sought to determine whether the diminution in subarachnoid space is associated with syringogenesis. Further, the authors sought to determine if syrinx resolution was associated with the degree of expansion of subarachnoid spaces after surgery.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression for CM-I from 2004 to 2016 at the University of Virginia Health System. The subarachnoid spaces at the FM and at the level of the most severe stenosis were measured before and after surgery by manual delineation of the canal and neural tissue area on MRI and verified through automated CSF intensity measurements. Imaging and clinical outcomes were then compared.

RESULTS

Of 68 patients, 26 had a syrinx at presentation. Syrinx patients had significantly less subarachnoid space at the FM (13% vs 19%, p = 0.0070) compared to those without syrinx. Following matching based on degree of tonsillar herniation and age, the subarachnoid space was significantly smaller in patients with a syrinx (12% vs 19%, p = 0.0015). Syrinx resolution was associated with an increase in patients’ subarachnoid space after surgery compared with those patients without resolution (23% vs 10%, p = 0.0323).

CONCLUSIONS

Syrinx development in CM-I patients is correlated with the degree to which the subarachnoid CSF spaces are diminished at the cranial outlet. Successful syrinx reduction is associated with the degree to which the subarachnoid spaces are increased following surgery.