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Kelsey Cobourn, Islam Fayed, Robert F. Keating and Chima O. Oluigbo

OBJECTIVE

Stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) and MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) have both emerged as minimally invasive alternatives to open surgery for the localization and treatment of medically refractory lesional epilepsy. Although some data are available about the use of these procedures individually, reports are almost nonexistent on their use in conjunction. The authors’ aim was to report early outcomes regarding efficacy and safety of sEEG followed by MRgLITT for localization and ablation of seizure foci in the pediatric population with medically refractory lesional epilepsy.

METHODS

A single-center retrospective review of pediatric patients who underwent sEEG followed by MRgLITT procedures was performed. Demographic, intraoperative, and outcome data were compiled and analyzed.

RESULTS

Four pediatric patients with 9 total lesions underwent sEEG followed by MRgLITT procedures between January and September 2017. The mean age at surgery was 10.75 (range 2–21) years. Two patients had tuberous sclerosis and 2 had focal cortical dysplasia. Methods of stereotaxy consisted of BrainLab VarioGuide and ROSA robotic guidance, with successful localization of seizure foci in all cases. The sEEG procedure length averaged 153 (range 67–235) minutes, with a mean of 6 (range 4–8) electrodes and 56 (range 18–84) contacts per patient. The MRgLITT procedure length averaged 223 (range 179–252) minutes. The mean duration of monitoring was 6 (range 4–8) days, and the mean total hospital stay was 8 (range 5–11) days. Over a mean follow-up duration of 9.3 (range 5.1–16) months, 3 patients were seizure free (Engel class I, 75%), and 1 patient saw significant improvement in seizure frequency (Engel class II, 25%). There were no complications.

CONCLUSIONS

These early data demonstrate that sEEG followed by MRgLITT can be used safely and effectively to localize and ablate epileptogenic foci in a minimally invasive paradigm for treatment of medically refractory lesional epilepsy in pediatric populations. Continued collection of data with extended follow-up is needed.

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Chima O. Oluigbo, Karen Thacker and Graham Flint

Object

The role of thecoperitoneal shunts in the management of syringomyelia is not well defined. In this study, the authors analyze the outcome of lumboperitoneal shunt procedures carried out to treat syringomyelia in their institution.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 19 patients who underwent lumboperitoneal shunt procedures for syringomyelia.

Results

The mean follow-up duration was 25 months (range 3–51 months). Of 16 cases followed up, only 5 patients reported clinical improvement in their preoperative symptoms, but of these, 2 had clear radiological evidence of improvement. Three of 6 patients with syringomyelia due to spinal arachnoiditis improved.

Conclusions

Lumboperitoneal shunts may lead to useful improvement in the symptoms of a patient with syringomyelia while avoiding the risk of neurological deterioration inherent in myelotomies required for syrinx shunting procedures.

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Siri Sahib S. Khalsa, Alan Siu, Tiffani A. DeFreitas, Justin M. Cappuzzo, John S. Myseros, Suresh N. Magge, Chima O. Oluigbo and Robert F. Keating

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies have indicated an association of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) and a small posterior fossa. Most of these studies have been limited by 2D quantitative methods, and more recent studies utilizing 3D methodologies are time-intensive with manual segmentation. The authors sought to develop a more automated tool to calculate the 3D posterior fossa volume, and correlate its changes after decompression with surgical outcomes.

METHODS

A semiautomated segmentation program was developed, and used to compare the pre- and postoperative volumes of the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and the CSF spaces (cisterna magna, prepontine cistern, and fourth ventricle) in a cohort of pediatric patients with CM-I. Volume changes were correlated with postoperative symptomatic improvements in headache, syrinx, tonsillar descent, cervicomedullary kinking, and overall surgical success.

RESULTS

Forty-two pediatric patients were included in this study. The mean percentage increase in PCF volume was significantly greater in patients who showed clinical improvement versus no improvement in headache (5.89% vs 1.54%, p < 0.05) and tonsillar descent (6.52% vs 2.57%, p < 0.05). Overall clinical success was associated with a larger postoperative PCF volume increase (p < 0.05). These clinical improvements were also significantly associated with a larger increase in the volume of the cisterna magna (p < 0.05). The increase in the caudal portion of the posterior fossa volume was also larger in patients who showed improvement in syrinx (6.63% vs 2.58%, p < 0.05) and cervicomedullary kinking (9.24% vs 3.79%, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

A greater increase in the postoperative PCF volume, and specifically an increase in the cisterna magna volume, was associated with a greater likelihood of clinical improvements in headache and tonsillar descent in patients with CM-I. Larger increases in the caudal portion of the posterior fossa volume were also associated with a greater likelihood of improvement in syrinx and cervicomedullary kinking.

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Matthew F. Sacino, Cheng-Ying Ho, Jonathan Murnick, Robert F. Keating, William D. Gaillard and Chima O. Oluigbo

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies have demonstrated that an important factor in seizure freedom following surgery for lesional epilepsy in the peri-eloquent cortex is completeness of resection. However, aggressive resection of epileptic tissue localized to this region must be balanced with the competing objective of retaining postoperative neurological functioning. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) as a complement to existing epilepsy protocol techniques and to compare rates of seizure freedom and neurological deficit in pediatric patients undergoing resection of perieloquent lesions.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric patients who underwent resection of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) or heterotopia localized to eloquent cortex regions at the Children's National Health System between March 2005 and August 2015. Patients were grouped into two categories depending on whether they underwent conventional resection (n = 18) or iMRI-assisted resection (n = 11). Patient records were reviewed for factors including demographics, length of hospitalization, postoperative seizure freedom, postoperative neurological deficit, and need for reoperation. Postsurgical seizure outcome was assessed at the last postoperative follow-up evaluation using the Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale.

RESULTS

At the time of the last postoperative follow-up examination, 9 (82%) of the 11 patients in the iMRI resection group were seizure free (Engel Class I), compared with 7 (39%) of the 18 patients in the control resection group (p = 0.05). Ten (91%) of the 11 patients in the iMRI cohort achieved gross-total resection (GTR), compared with 8 (44%) of 18 patients in the conventional resection cohort (p = 0.02). One patient in the iMRI-assisted resection group underwent successful reoperation at a later date for residual dysplasia, compared with 7 patients in the conventional resection cohort (with 2/7 achieving complete resection). Four (36%) of the patients in the iMRI cohort developed postoperative neurological deficits, compared with 15 patients (83%) in the conventional resection cohort (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that in comparison with a conventional surgical protocol and technique for resection of epileptic lesions in peri-eloquent cortex, the incorporation of iMRI led to elevated rates of GTR and postoperative seizure freedom. Furthermore, this study suggests that iMRI-assisted surgeries are associated with a reduction in neurological deficits due to intraoperative damage of eloquent cortex.

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Chima O. Oluigbo, C. Corbett Wilkinson, Nicholas V. Stence, Laura Z. Fenton, Sean A. McNatt and Michael H. Handler

Object

The goal of this study was to compare clinical outcomes following decompressive craniectomy performed for intracranial hypertension in children with nonaccidental, blunt cranial trauma with outcomes of decompressive craniectomy in children injured by other mechanisms.

Methods

All children in a prospectively acquired database of trauma admissions who underwent decompressive craniectomy over a 9-year span, beginning January 1, 2000, are the basis for this study. Clinical records and neuroimaging studies were systematically reviewed.

Results

Thirty-seven children met the inclusion criteria. Nonaccidental head trauma was the most common mechanism of injury (38%). The mortality rate in patients with abusive brain injury (35.7%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in patients with other causes of traumatic brain injury (4.3%). Children with inflicted head injuries had a 12-fold increase in the odds of death and 3-fold increase in the odds of a poor outcome (King's Outcome Scale for Closed Head Injury score of 1, 2, or 3).

Conclusions

Children with nonaccidental blunt cranial trauma have significantly higher mortality following decompressive craniectomy than do children with other mechanisms of injury. This understanding can be interpreted to mean either that the threshold for decompression should be lower in children with nonaccidental closed head injury or that decompression is unlikely to alter the path to a fatal outcome. If decompressive craniectomy is to be effective in reducing mortality in the setting of nonaccidental blunt cranial trauma, it should be done quite early.

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Joel S. Katz, Chima O. Oluigbo, C. Corbett Wilkinson, Sean McNatt and Michael H. Handler

Object

The incidence, type, and severity of pediatric cervical spine injuries (CSIs) are related to age and mechanism of injury. In this study, the authors assessed the prevalence of CSIs in infants with head trauma treated in their institution.

Methods

The authors reviewed the medical records of children younger than 1 year of age who presented to The Children's Hospital with head injuries between January 1993 and December 2007. They excluded infants with head injuries resulting from motor vehicle accidents and known falls from heights greater than 10 ft. For each patient, collected data included age, cause of injury, diagnosis, discharge disposition, and outcome. Relevant imaging data were reviewed, and when appropriate, autopsy reports were also reviewed.

Results

Nine hundred five infants with head trauma and without a major mechanism/cause were identified. Their mean age was 4.3 months. Of the 905 patients, only 2 cases of CSI were detected, giving a prevalence of 0.2%. The mechanism of injury in these 2 patients was nonaccidental trauma (NAT).

Conclusions

The study revealed a very low prevalence of CSIs in infants with head trauma (0.2%). Routine cervical spine imaging in these infants, therefore, appears to have low diagnostic yield. The mechanism of head injury was NAT in the 2 patients who sustained an associated CSI. This supports the need for more stringent cervical spine imaging criteria for the infant with suspected NAT.

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Suresh N. Magge, Arthur R. Bartolozzi IV, Neil D. Almeida, Deki Tsering, John S. Myseros, Chima O. Oluigbo, Gary F. Rogers and Robert F. Keating

OBJECTIVE

Sagittal craniosynostosis is managed with a wide variety of operative strategies. The current investigation compares the clinical outcomes of two widely performed techniques: pi craniectomy and minimally invasive endoscopic strip craniectomy (ESC) followed by helmet therapy.

METHODS

This IRB-approved retrospective study examined patients diagnosed with nonsyndromic, single-suture sagittal craniosynostosis treated with either pi craniectomy or ESC. Included patients had a minimum postoperative follow-up of 5 months.

RESULTS

Fifty-one patients met the inclusion criteria (pi 21 patients, ESC 30 patients). Compared to patients who underwent ESC, the pi patients were older at the time of surgery (mean age 5.06 vs 3.11 months). The mean follow-up time was 23.2 months for ESC patients and 31.4 months for pi patients. Initial cranial index (CI) was similar between the groups, but postoperatively the ESC patients experienced a 12.3% mean increase in CI (from 0.685 to 0.767) compared to a 5.34% increase for the pi patients (from 0.684 to 0.719), and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Median hospital length of stay (1 vs 2 days) and operative duration (69.5 vs 93.3 minutes) were significantly less for ESC (p < 0.001 for both). The ESC patients showed a trend toward better results when surgery was done at younger ages. Craniectomy width in ESC cases was positively associated with CI improvement (slope of linear regression = 0.69, p = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS

While both techniques effectively treated sagittal craniosynostosis, ESC showed superior results compared to pi craniectomy. ESC showed a trend for better outcomes when done at younger ages, although the trend did not reach statistical significance. A wider craniectomy width (up to 2 cm) was associated with better outcomes than smaller craniectomy widths among the ESC patients.

Free access

Orgest Lajthia, Jerry W. Chao, Max Mandelbaum, John S. Myseros, Chima Oluigbo, Suresh N. Magge, Christopher S. Zarella, Albert K. Oh, Gary F. Rogers and Robert F. Keating

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial empyema is a life-threatening condition associated with a high mortality rate and residual deleterious neurological effects if not diagnosed and managed promptly. The authors present their institutional experience with immediate reimplantation of the craniotomy flap and clarify the success of this method in terms of cranial integrity, risk of recurrent infection, and need for secondary procedures.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis of patients admitted for management of intracranial empyema during a 19-year period (1997–2016) identified 33 patients who underwent emergency drainage and decompression with a follow-up duration longer than 6 months, 23 of whom received immediate bone replacement. Medical records were analyzed for demographic information, extent and location of the infection, bone flap size, fixation method, need for further operative intervention, and duration of intravenous antibiotics.

RESULTS

The mean patient age at surgery was 8.7 ± 5.7 years and the infections were largely secondary to sinusitis (52.8%), with the most common location being the frontal/temporal region (61.3%). Operative intervention involved removal of a total of 31 bone flaps with a mean surface area of 22.8 ± 26.9 cm2. Nearly all (96.8%) of the bone flaps replaced at the time of the initial surgery were viable over the long term. Eighteen patients (78.3%) required a single craniotomy in conjunction with antibiotic therapy to address the infection, whereas the remaining 21.7% required more than 1 surgery. Partial bone flap resorption was noted in only 1 (3.2%) of the 31 successfully replaced bone flaps. This patient eventually had his bone flap removed and received a split-calvaria bone graft. Twenty-one patients (91.3%) received postoperative CT scans to evaluate bone integrity. The mean follow-up duration of the cohort was 43.9 ± 54.0 months.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of our investigation suggest that immediate replacement and stabilization of the bone flap after craniectomy for drainage of intracranial empyemas has a low risk of recurrent infection and is a safe and effective way to restore bone integrity in most patients.

Free access

Matthew F. Sacino, Cheng-Ying Ho, Jonathan Murnick, Tammy Tsuchida, Suresh N. Magge, Robert F. Keating, William D. Gaillard and Chima O. Oluigbo

OBJECTIVE

Previous meta-analysis has demonstrated that the most important factor in seizure freedom following surgery for focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is completeness of resection. However, intraoperative detection of epileptogenic dysplastic cortical tissue remains a challenge, potentially leading to a partial resection and the need for reoperation. The objective of this study was to determine the role of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) in the intraoperative detection and localization of FCD as well as its impact on surgical decision making, completeness of resection, and seizure control outcomes.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric patients who underwent iMRI-assisted resection of FCD at the Children's National Health System between January 2014 and April 2015. Data reviewed included demographics, length of surgery, details of iMRI acquisition, postoperative seizure freedom, and complications. Postsurgical seizure outcome was assessed utilizing the Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale.

RESULTS

Twelve consecutive pediatric patients (8 females and 4 males) underwent iMRI-guided resection of FCD lesions. The mean age at the time of surgery was 8.8 years ± 1.6 years (range 0.7 to 18.8 years), and the mean duration of follow up was 3.5 months ± 1.0 month. The mean age at seizure onset was 2.8 years ± 1.0 year (range birth to 9.0 years). Two patients had Type 1 FCD, 5 patients had Type 2A FCD, 2 patients had Type 2B FCD, and 3 patients had FCD of undetermined classification. iMRI findings impacted intraoperative surgical decision making in 5 (42%) of the 12 patients, who then underwent further exploration of the resection cavity. At the time of the last postoperative follow-up, 11 (92%) of the 12 patients were seizure free (Engel Class I). No patients underwent reoperation following iMRI-guided surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

iMRI-guided resection of FCD in pediatric patients precluded the need for repeat surgery. Furthermore, it resulted in the achievement of complete resection in all the patients, leading to a high rate of postoperative seizure freedom.

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Matthew F. Sacino, Cheng-Ying Ho, Matthew T. Whitehead, Amy Kao, Dewi Depositario-Cabacar, John S. Myseros, Suresh N. Magge, Robert F. Keating, William D. Gaillard and Chima O. Oluigbo

OBJECTIVE

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common cause of medically intractable epilepsy that often may be treated by surgery. Following resection, many patients continue to experience seizures, necessitating a decision for further surgery to achieve the desired seizure outcomes. Few studies exist on the efficacy of reoperation for intractable epilepsy due to FCD in pediatric cohorts, including the definition of prognostic factors correlated with clinical benefit from further resection.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the medical records and MR images of 22 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent repeat FCD resection after unsuccessful first surgery at the Children's National Health System between March 2005 and April 2015.

RESULTS

Accounting for all reoperations, 13 (59%) of the 22 patients achieved complete seizure freedom and another 5 patients (23%) achieved significant improvement in seizure control. Univariate analysis demonstrated that concordance in electrocorticography (ECoG) and MRI localization (p = 0.005), and completeness of resection (p = 0.0001), were associated with seizure freedom after the first reoperation. Patients with discordant ECoG and MRI findings ultimately benefited from aggressive multilobe lobectomy or hemispherectomy. Repeat lesionectomies utilizing intraoperative MRI (iMRI; n = 9) achieved complete resection and seizure freedom in all cases.

CONCLUSIONS

Reoperation may be clinically beneficial in patients with intractable epilepsy due to FCD. Patients with concordant intraoperative ECoG and MRI localization may benefit from extended resection of residual dysplasia at the margins of the previous lesional cavity, and iMRI may offer benefits as a quality control mechanism to ensure that a complete resection has been accomplished. Patients with discordant findings may benefit from more aggressive resections at earlier stages to achieve better seizure control and ensure functional plasticity.