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Chih-Chen Chang, Hong-Shiu Chang and Cheng Hong Toh

The authors report a case in which intravitreous silicone oil migrated into the ventricles. They note that intraventricular silicone oil can be misdiagnosed as intraventricular hemorrhage and neurosurgeons should be aware of this possibility.

This 58-year-old woman with a history of Type II diabetic mellitus and retinal detachment (resulting from diabetic retinopathy), which had been treated with intravitreous silicone tamponade, presented with dizziness and headache approximately 10 years after the intravitreous silicone treatment. Over the next 6 years she underwent 2 non–contrast-enhanced brain CT studies and 1 MRI study for evaluation of her symptoms. On CT scan, extension of the intraocular silicone along the optic nerve was evident. Two hyperdense nodules were observed freely floating in the right lateral and fourth ventricles, remaining in the nondependent portion of ventricles in both supine and prone positions. On T2-weighted MRI, the left orbital content and the intraventricular nodules all demonstrated chemical shift artifacts typically associated with silicone. The imaging findings were characteristic for intraventricular silicone after silicone oil tamponade. The patient's dizziness and headache were treated symptomatically and she was followed up at the outpatient department.

Migration of intravitreous silicone oil into the cerebral ventricles is a rare complication. Intraventricular silicone oil can mimic intraventricular hemorrhage. Radiographically, intraventricular silicone oil can be distinguished from hemorrhage as silicone oil tends to stay in the nondependent portion of the ventricle. Chemical shift artifacts on MRI may help establishing the diagnosis of intraventricular silicone oil. Currently, there is no consensus on surgical removal of intraventricular silicone oil, and in the majority of cases reported in the literature, the patients were asymptomatic.

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Chih-Chuan Yang, Hung-Chang Chen and Chien-Min Chen

✓Presacral tumors are rarely found in adults. Resections via open abdominal or sacral approaches have been advocated traditionally as the preferred treatment for these tumors. The endoscopic surgical technique provides direct visualization of the presacral or retroperitoneal space. The authors report on a 67-year-old man who experienced difficulty in defecation off and on for 5 weeks, and recently he had suffered indistinct pain in the lower abdomen. The abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 5.1 × 4.2–cm, homogeneous, low-density, well-defined mass arising from the left sciatic nerve abutting the left piriformis muscle, favoring a diagnosis of benign neurogenic tumor. Endoscopically guided resection was applied, with a favorable outcome. This procedure represents a less invasive approach that may be useful for benign retroperitoneal pelvic tumors.

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G. Evren Keles, Edward F. Chang, Kathleen R. Lamborn, Tarik Tihan, Chih-Ju Chang, Susan M. Chang and Mitchel S. Berger

Object

To investigate the prognostic significance of the volumetrically assessed extent of resection on time to tumor progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and tumor recurrence patterns, the authors retrospectively analyzed preoperative and postoperative tumor volumes in 102 adult patients from the time of the initial resection of a hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma (AA).

Methods

The quantification of tumor volumes was based on a previously described method involving computerized analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) images. Analysis of contrast-enhancing tumor volumes on T1-weighted MR images was conducted for 67 patients who had contrast-enhancing tumors. Measurements of T2 hyperintensity were obtained for all 102 patients in the study.

The presence or absence of preresection enhancement, actual volume of this enhancement, and the percentage of preoperative enhancement as it relates to the total T2 tumor volume did not have a statistically significant relationship to TTP or OS. In addition to age, the volume of residual disease measured on T2-weighted MR images was the most significant predictor of TTP (p < 0.001), and residual contrast-enhancing tumor volume was the most significant predictor of OS (p = 0.003) on multivariate analysis. In contrast to low-grade gliomas, there was no statistically significant relationship between the extent of resection and histological characteristics at the time of recurrence, that is, tumor Grade III compared with Grade IV.

Conclusions

Data from this retrospective analysis of a histologically uniform group of hemispheric AAs treated in the MR imaging era suggest that residual tumor volumes, as documented on postoperative imaging studies, may be a prognostic factor for TTP and OS for this patient population.

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Chun-Hung Tseng, Wei-Shih Huang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Yen-Jung Chang and Fung-Chang Sung

OBJECT

Inflammation may provoke cerebral arteriolar ectasia, inducing microaneurysm formation and further promoting intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Chronic osteomyelitis (COM) is an inflammatory disorder for which study of its role in ICH is lacking. This study explored whether COM increases the risk of ICH.

METHODS

From Taiwan national insurance inpatient claims, 22,052 patients who were newly diagnosed with COM between 1997 and 2010 were identified; 88, 207 age and sex frequency-matched subjects without COM were selected at random for comparison. Risks of ICH associated with COM and comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and drug abuse, were assessed by the end of 2010.

RESULTS

The incidence of ICH was 1.68 times higher in the COM cohort than in the comparison cohort, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.50 (95% CI 1.29–1.74) estimated in the multivariable Cox model. Age-specific analysis showed that the HR of ICH for COM patients decreased with age, with an adjusted HR of 3.28 (95% CI 1.88–5.75) in the < 40-year age group, which declined to 1.11 (95% CI 0.88–1.40) in the elderly. The incidence of ICH increased with the severity of COM; for those with severe COM the adjusted HR was 4.42 (95% CI 3.31–5.89). For subjects without comorbidities, the incidence of ICH was 1.20-fold (95% CI 1.00–1.45) higher in the COM cohort than in the comparison cohort.

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests for the first time that COM is an inflammatory factor associated with increased risk of ICH, especially in younger patients.

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Hsuan-Kan Chang, Chih-Chang Chang, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Jau-Ching Wu, Wen-Cheng Huang, Li-Yu Fay, Peng-Yuan Chang, Ching-Lan Wu and Henrich Cheng

OBJECTIVE

Many reports have successfully demonstrated that cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) can preserve range of motion after 1- or 2-level discectomy. However, few studies have addressed the extent of changes in segmental mobility after CDA or their clinical correlations.

METHODS

Data from consecutive patients who underwent 1-level CDA were retrospectively reviewed. Indications for surgery were medically intractable degenerative disc disease and spondylosis. Clinical outcomes, including visual analog scale (VAS)–measured neck and arm pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, were analyzed. Radiographic outcomes, including C2–7 Cobb angle, the difference between pre- and postoperative C2–7 Cobb angle (ΔC2–7 Cobb angle), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), the difference between pre- and postoperative SVA (ΔSVA), segmental range of motion (ROM), and the difference between pre- and postoperative ROM (ΔROM), were assessed for their association with clinical outcomes. All patients underwent CT scanning, by which the presence and severity of heterotopic ossification (HO) were determined during the follow-up.

RESULTS

A total of 50 patients (mean age 45.6 ± 9.33 years) underwent a 1-level CDA (Prestige LP disc) and were followed up for a mean duration of 27.7 ± 8.76 months. All clinical outcomes, including VAS, NDI, and JOA scores, improved significantly after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative ROM values were similar (mean 9.5° vs 9.0°, p > 0.05) at each indexed level. The mean changes in segmental mobility (ΔROM) were −0.5° ± 6.13°. Patients with increased segmental mobility after surgery (ΔROM > 0°) had a lower incidence of HO and HO that was less severe (p = 0.048) than those whose ΔROM was < 0°. Segmental mobility (ROM) was significantly lower in patients with higher HO grade (p = 0.012), but it did not affect the clinical outcomes. The preoperative and postoperative C2–7 Cobb angles and SVA remained similar. The postoperative C2–7 Cobb angles, SVA, ΔC2–7 Cobb angles, and ΔSVA were not correlated to clinical outcomes after CDA.

CONCLUSIONS

Segmental mobility (as reflected by the mean ROM) and overall cervical alignment (i.e., mean SVA and C2–7 Cobb angle) had no significant impact on clinical outcomes after 1-level CDA. Patients with increased segmental mobility (ΔROM > 0°) had significantly less HO and similarly improved clinical outcomes than those with decreased segmental mobility (ΔROM < 0°).

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Chih-Chang Chang, Yu-Shu Yen, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Li-Yu Fay, Wen-Cheng Huang and Jau-Ching Wu

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Chih-Chang Chang, Li-Yu Fay, Jau-Ching Wu, Peng-Yuan Chang, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Henrich Cheng and Wen-Cheng Huang

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Tsung-Hsi Tu, Chih-Chang Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Li-Yu Fay, Wen-Cheng Huang and Henrich Cheng

The most commonly accepted indications for cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) are 1- and 2-level cervical disc herniation or spondylosis causing radiculopathy or myelopathy that is refractory to medical management. Unlike anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), which eliminates motion, CDA aims to restore the physiological range of motion of the indexed joint. Thus, the effect of indirect decompression gained by the insertion of a sufficiently large interbody graft and incorporation into arthrodesis after ACDF cannot be duplicated for CDA. For patients undergoing CDA, during extreme flexion/extension or rotation, the exiting nerve roots might be impinged by inadequately decompressed foraminal osteophytes. Therefore, the authors advocate generous decompression, including resection of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) and bilateral uncovertebral joints (UVJs), even in the asymptomatic side. This video demonstrates full dural expansion and enlarged neuroforamen after removal of the PLL and UVJs. Venous hemorrhage encountered during foraminotomy can always be controlled by cottonoid packing or hemostatic agents. Also, the endplates of the surrounding vertebral bodies were meticulously prepared for parallel insertion of the ProDisc-C Nova (DePuy Synthes Spine) artificial disc. Please note that the ProDisc-C Nova is currently not available on the US market.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/XUo34j6WFYs.

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Chih-Chang Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Peng-Yuan Chang, Mei-Yin Yeh, Yi-Hsuan Kuo, Li-Yu Fay, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Wen-Cheng Huang and Henrich Cheng

There are many kinds of artificial discs available for cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA), with various designs of fixation and articulation mechanisms. Each of these designs has different features and theoretically fits most optimally in selected types of patients. However, there has been insufficient literature to guide individualized selection among these CDA devices. Since CDA aims to restore the joint function rather than arthrodesis, tailor-made size, shape, and mechanical properties should be taken into account for each candidate's target disc. Despite several large-scale prospective randomized control trials that have demonstrated the effectiveness and durability of CDA for up to 8 years, none of them involved more than one kind of artificial disc. In this video the authors present detailed steps and technical aspects of the newly introduced ProDisc-C Vivo (DePuy Synthes Spine), which has the same ball-and-socket design for controlled, predictable motion as the ProDisc-C. The newly derived teeth fixation provides high primary stability and multilevel capability by avoidance of previous keel-related limitations and complications (e.g., split vertebral fracture). Please note that the ProDisc-C Vivo is currently not available on the US market.

The authors present the case of a 53-year-old woman who had symptoms of both radiculopathy and myelopathy caused by a large, calcified disc herniation at C4–5. There was no improvement after 4 months of medical treatment and rehabilitation. A single-level CDA was successfully performed with the ProDisc-C Vivo, and her symptoms were completely ameliorated afterward. The follow-up images demonstrated preservation of motion at the indexed level.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/4DSES1xgvQU.