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Yu-Shu Yen, Li-Min Sun, Cheng-Li Lin, Shih-Ni Chang, Fung-Chang Sung, and Chia-Hung Kao

Object

Evidence suggests that hormones play a role in modifying both uterine myoma (UM) and meningioma. A number of studies have observed the positive association between these diseases. The aim of the current population-based study was to determine if women with UM are at a higher risk for meningioma.

Methods

The authors used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan for the study. The UM cohort contained 281,244 women. Each woman was randomly frequency-matched with 4 women without UM, based on age, index year of diagnosis, occupation, urbanization (urbanization level was categorized by the population density of the residential area into 4 levels, with Level 1 as the most urbanized and Level 4 as the least urbanized), and comorbidity, to form the control cohort. Cox's proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to estimate the influence of UM on the meningioma risk.

Results

Among women with UM, the risk of developing meningioma was significantly higher (45%) than among women without UM (95% CI 1.23–1.70). The same phenomenon was observed among most age groups, but a significant difference was only seen in the middle-age range. For women with UM, further analysis did not show a significant change after myomectomy. The cumulative incidence of meningioma between groups with and without UM differed over time.

Conclusions

The nationwide population-based cohort study found that Taiwanese women with UM are at higher risk for developing meningioma.

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Chao-Jui Chang, Yuan-Fu Liu, Yu-Meng Hsiao, Yi-Hung Huang, Keng-Chang Liu, Ruey-Mo Lin, and Cheng-Li Lin

OBJECTIVE

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has long been regarded as a gold standard in the treatment of cervical myelopathy. Subsequently, cervical artificial disc replacement (c-ADR) was developed and provides the advantage of motion preservation at the level of the intervertebral disc surgical site, which may also reduce stress at adjacent levels. The goal of this study was to compare clinical and functional outcomes in patients undergoing ACDF with those in patients undergoing c-ADR for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

METHODS

A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed using the Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from database inception to November 21, 2021. The authors compared Neck Disability Index (NDI), SF-36, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores; complication rates; and reoperation rates for these two surgical procedures in CSM patients. The Mantel-Haenszel method and variance-weighted means were used to analyze outcomes after identifying articles that met study inclusion criteria.

RESULTS

More surgical time was consumed in the c-ADR surgery (p = 0.04). Shorter hospital stays were noted in patients who had undergone c-ADR (p = 0.04). Patients who had undergone c-ADR tended to have better NDI scores (p = 0.02) and SF-36 scores (p = 0.001). Comparable outcomes in terms of JOA scores (p = 0.24) and neurological success rate (p = 0.12) were noted after the surgery. There was no significant between-group difference in the overall complication rates (c-ADR: 18% vs ACDF: 25%, p = 0.17). However, patients in the ACDF group had a higher reoperation rate than patients in the c-ADR group (4.6% vs 1.5%, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

At the midterm follow-up after treatment of CSM, better functional outcomes as reflected by NDI and SF-36 scores were noted in the c-ADR group than those in the ACDF group. c-ADR had the advantage of retaining range of motion at the level of the intervertebral disc surgical site without causing more complications. A large sample size with long-term follow-up studies may be required to confirm these findings in the future.

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XianXiu Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Yuan-Chih Su, Kuan-Fei Chen, Shih-Wei Lai, Sung-Tai Wei, Ching-Tien Peng, Cheng-Di Chiu, Shwn-Huey Shieh, and Chun-Chung Chen

OBJECTIVE

Although no benefits of extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery in preventing secondary stroke have been identified previously, the outcomes of initial symptomatic ischemic stroke and stenosis and/or occlusion among the Asian population in patients with or without bypass intervention have yet to be discussed. The authors aimed to evaluate the subsequent risk of secondary vascular disease and cardiac events in patients with and without a history of this intervention.

METHODS

This retrospective nationwide population-based Taiwanese registry study included 205,991 patients with initial symptomatic ischemic stroke and stenosis and/or occlusion, with imaging data obtained between 2001 and 2010. Patients who underwent EC-IC bypass (bypass group) were compared with those who had not undergone EC-IC bypass, carotid artery stenting, or carotid artery endarterectomy (nonbypass group). Patients with any previous diagnosis of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, moyamoya disease, cancer, or trauma were all excluded.

RESULTS

The risk of subsequent ischemic stroke events decreased by 41% in the bypass group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.46–0.76, p < 0.001) compared with the nonbypass group. The risk of subsequent hemorrhagic stroke events increased in the bypass group (adjusted HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.67–3.64, p < 0.001) compared with the nonbypass group.

CONCLUSIONS

Bypass surgery does play an important role in revascularization of the ischemic brain, while also increasing the risk of hemorrhage in the early postoperative period. This study highlights the fact that the high risk of bypass surgery obscures the true benefit of revascularization of the ischemic brain and also emphasizes the importance of developing improved surgical technique to treat these high-risk patients.

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Chia-Hua Chen, Pin-Yuan Chen, You-Yu Lin, Li-Ying Feng, Shin-Han Chen, Chia-Yuan Chen, Yin-Cheng Huang, Chiung-Yin Huang, Shih-Ming Jung, Leslie Y. Chen, and Kuo-Chen Wei

OBJECTIVE

Despite intensive medical treatment, patients with glioblastoma (grade IV glioma [GBM]) have a low 5-year survival rate of 5.5%. In this study, the authors tried to improve currently used therapies by identification of a therapeutic target, IGFBP3, for glioma treatment.

METHODS

IGFBP3 RNA expression in 135 patients newly diagnosed with glioma was correlated with clinicopathological factors. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine IGFBP3 protein expression in glioma specimens. The effect of IGFBP3 depletion on cell proliferation was examined using IGFBP3 knockdown glioma cells. Intracranial infusion of IGFBP3 siRNAs was performed to evaluate the effect of IGFBP3 depletion in mouse intracranial xenograft models.

RESULTS

We demonstrated higher IGFBP3 expression in GBM than in tumor margin and grade II glioma. IGFBP3 expression was not only positively correlated with tumor grades but also associated with tumor histology and IDH1/2 mutation status. Additionally, higher IGFBP3 expression predicted shorter overall survival in glioma and GBM proneural subgroup patients. In vitro cell culture studies suggested IGFBP3 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell cycle G2/M arrest as well as apoptosis in glioma cells. Also, accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks and γH2AX was observed in IGFBP3 knockdown cells. IGFBP3 knockdown delayed in vivo tumor growth in mouse subcutaneous xenograft models. Furthermore, convection-enhanced delivery of IGFBP3 siRNA to mouse brain suppressed intracranial tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings suggest IGFBP3 predicts poor outcome of glioma patients and is a potential therapeutic target for which depletion of its expression suppresses tumor growth through inducing apoptosis and accumulation of DNA damage in glioma cells.

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Xiao-hui Ren, Chun Chu, Chun Zeng, Yong-ji Tian, Zhen-yu Ma, Kai Tang, Lan-bing Yu, Xiang-li Cui, Zhong-cheng Wang, and Song Lin

Object

Intracranial epidermoid cysts are rare, potentially curable, benign lesions that are sometimes associated with severe postoperative complications, including hemorrhage. Delayed hemorrhage, defined as one that occurred after an initial unremarkable postoperative CT scan, contributed to most cases of postoperative hemorrhage in patients with epidermoid cyst. In this study, the authors focus on delayed hemorrhage as one of the severe postoperative complications in epidermoid cyst, report its incidence and its clinical features, and analyze related clinical parameters.

Methods

There were 428 cases of intracranial epidermoid cysts that were surgically treated between 2002 and 2008 in Beijing Tiantan Hospital, and these were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, the cases with delayed postoperative hemorrhage were chosen for analysis. Clinical parameters were recorded, including the patient's age and sex, the chief surgeon's experience in neurosurgery, the year in which the operation was performed, tumor size, adhesion to neurovascular structures, and degree of resection. These parameters were compared in patients with and without delayed postoperative hemorrhage to identify risk factors associated with this entity.

Results

The incidences of postoperative hemorrhage and delayed postoperative hemorrhage in patients with epidermoid cyst were 5.61% (24 of 428) and 4.91% (21 of 428), respectively, both of which were significantly higher than that of postoperative hemorrhage in all concurrently treated intracranial tumors, which was 0.91% (122 of 13,479). The onset of delayed postoperative hemorrhage ranged from the 5th to 23rd day after the operation; the median time of onset was the 8th day. The onset manifestation included signs of intracranial hypertension and/or meningeal irritation (71.4%), brain herniation (14.3%), seizures (9.5%), and syncope (4.8%). Neuroimages revealed hematoma in 11 cases and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 10 cases. The rehemorrhage rate was 38.1% (8 of 21). The mortality rate for delayed postoperative hemorrhage was 28.6% (6 of 21). None of the clinical parameters was correlated with delayed postoperative hemorrhage (p > 0.05), despite a relatively lower p value for adhesion to neurovascular structures (p = 0.096).

Conclusions

Delayed postoperative hemorrhage contributed to most of the postoperative hemorrhages in patients with intracranial epidermoid cysts and was a unique postoperative complication with unfavorable outcomes. Adhesion to neurovascular structures was possibly related to delayed postoperative hemorrhage (p = 0.096).

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Yi-Syuan Li, Chun-Yu Chen, Chi-Hui Chen, Zhi-Kang Yao, Yu-Hsiang Sung, Kai-Cheng Lin, Yih-Wen Tarng, Chien-Jen Hsu, and Jenn-Huei Renn

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010