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Ye Tian, Zhige Shi, Shu Yang, Yingzhu Chen and Shiyao Bao

Object

The aim of this study was to determine the relation between changes in myelin basic protein (MBP) levels during the acute and subacute phases of central nervous system injury following whole-brain radiation and delayed demyelination in the radiation-injured brain tissue.

Methods

Adult Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with single fractions of 2, 10, or 30 Gy of whole-brain radiation. The authors measured MBP gene expression and protein levels in the brain tissue by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 1 week and 1–3 months following irradiation to monitor myelin changes in the brain. Demyelination was determined with Luxol fast blue myelin staining and routine histopathological and electron microscopy examination of injured brain tissue. The changes in MBP levels in the different animal groups at specific time points were correlated with demyelination in corresponding dose groups.

Results

At 1 month after applying the 10 and 30 Gy of radiation, MBP mRNA expression showed a transient but significant decrease, followed by recovery to baseline levels at 3 months after treatment. The MBP levels were decreased by only 70–75% at 1 month after 10 and 30 Gy of radiation. At 2–3 months after applying the higher dose of 30 Gy, however, the MBP levels continued to decline, and typical demyelination changes were observed with myelin staining and ultrastructural examination.

Conclusions

The authors' results suggest that the early radiation-induced MBP changes between 1 and 3 months after single treatments of 10 and 30 Gy of radiation to the whole brain are indicative of permanent injury shown as demyelination of irradiated brain tissue.

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Ye Tian, Wen Yuan, Huajiang Chen and Xiaolong Shen

The authors describe a case of spinal cord compression due to an osteochondroma arising from the T-6 vertebral body in a patient with hereditary multiple exostoses. This 16-year-old boy presented with spastic paraparesis. Surgical decompression was followed by resolution of the neurological impairments. Osteochondroma is the most common bone tumor. The distribution of osteochondromas greatly favors the extremities and these lesions rarely arise in the vertebral column. Osteochondromas occur in 2 distinct clinical settings—as solitary or multiple tumors, the latter being often associated with hereditary multiple exostoses. Osteochondromas are more commonly found in the posterior elements of the vertebrae. Intraspinal presentation of these tumors is usually limited to the cervical regions, with few tumors reported in the thoracic vertebrae. Based on the presented case and literature review, the authors conclude that osteochondromas of the thoracic spine that cause myelopathy usually arise from the vertebral body and pedicle. Prompt and systematic radiological investigations are important in planning surgical management. Surgical excision usually yields good results.

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Xiao-Qiang Wang, Cheng-Chuan Jiang, Lin Zhao, Ye Gong, Jie Hu and Hong Chen

Object

High-grade meningiomas in childhood are rare, and their clinical features are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and prognosis of childhood high-grade meningiomas.

Methods

Twenty-three patients with childhood high-grade meningiomas were treated at the Huashan Hospital. Clinical data were collected, tumor samples were reexamined, and prognoses were attained through follow-up visits and telephone interviews. Survival probability was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A 2-sided probability level of 0.05 was chosen for statistical significance.

Results

The series included 18 males and 5 females (mean age 12.1 years). The most common symptoms were headache and vomiting (43%). Three patients had accompanying neurofibromatosis Type II (NF2). The high-grade meningioma cases with NF2 had larger tumor diameters than those without NF2 (p = 0.010). The skull base was the most common tumor site (39%). Complete resections were achieved in 11 patients after their initial operations. Adjuvant radiation therapy was performed in 9 cases. Follow-up evaluations were performed for 20 patients (mean follow-up 70 months). Ten patients experienced recurrences, 2 patients had lung metastases, and 7 patients died of the recurrence. The extent of surgery was significantly related to progression-free survival (PFS; p = 0.038). A negative progesterone receptor combined with strongly positive Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was significantly related to PFS (p = 0.001) and overall survival (p = 0.002). The MIB-1 labeling index was significantly related to overall survival (p = 0.018), whereas postoperative radiation therapy was not significantly related to PFS (p = 0.087) and overall survival (p = 0.40).

Conclusions

Childhood high-grade meningioma is a rare tumor type. Childhood high-grade meningioma has a male predominance and the basilar region is the most common tumor location. Patients with these tumors have high recurrence and mortality rates. The extent of resection is an important prognosis factor. A negative progesterone receptor combined with a strongly positive Bcl-2 immunoreaction might predict cancer recurrence. The MIB-1 labeling index correlates with the prognosis, and an MIB-1 labeling index > 3% increases the risk of recurrence in childhood high-grade meningioma. More cases should be collected, and longer follow-up periods should be obtained, to evaluate the effects of postoperative radiation therapy in childhood high-grade meningioma.

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Xiaowei Li, Zhaosheng Sun, Wangmiao Zhao, Jinrong Zhang, Jianchao Chen, Yongqian Li, Yanqiao Ye, Jinlian Zhao, Xuehui Yang, Yi Xiang, Guangjie Li, Jianhui Mao, Wenchao Zhang, Mingzhe Zhang and Wanzeng Zhang

Object

The authors evaluated the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) usage and transfusion of previously frozen apheresis platelets on postoperative hemorrhage, activities of daily living (ADL) score, and mortality rate in patients with acute hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage undergoing craniotomy.

Methods

This was a prospective, double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial in patients with acute hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage, who had either not received ASA therapy (control) or received ASA therapy. The patients who received ASA therapy were divided according to the results of a platelet aggregation test into ASA-resistant, ASA-semiresponsive, and ASA-sensitive groups. All patients required an emergency craniotomy for hematoma removal after hospitalization. The patients who were sensitive to ASA were randomized to receive one of the following transfusion regimens of previously frozen apheresis platelets: no transfusion, 1 therapeutic dose before surgery, or 2 therapeutic doses (1 before surgery and 1 after 24 hours of hospitalization). The postoperative hemorrhage rate and the average postoperative hemorrhage volume were recorded and the ADL scores and mortality rate were measured during a 6-month follow-up period.

Results

The rate of postoperative hemorrhage, average postoperative hemorrhage volume, and mortality rate were significantly higher in the ASA-sensitive patients who received ASA therapy compared with patients who did not receive ASA therapy (all p < 0.005). The ADL scores were grouped into different grades and the number of cases in the lower grades was higher and the overall scores were poorer in patients who received ASA therapy compared with those who did not (all p < 0.005). After transfusion of previously frozen apheresis platelets, the postoperative hemorrhage rate, average postoperative hemorrhage volume, and mortality rate of the ASA-sensitive patients were significantly lowered (all p < 0.005), and the ADL scores and their classification level were better than those of patients who did not undergo transfusion (all p < 0.005).

Conclusions

Transfusion of previously frozen apheresis platelets reduces the rate of postoperative hemorrhage, average postoperative hemorrhage volume, disability rate, and mortality rate in ASA-sensitive patients with acute hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage undergoing craniotomy.

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Andrew M. Baschnagel, Kurt D. Meyer, Peter Y. Chen, Daniel J. Krauss, Rick E. Olson, Daniel R. Pieper, Ann H. Maitz, Hong Ye and Inga Siiner Grills

Object

The aim of this study was to examine tumor volume as a prognostic factor for patients with brain metastases treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS).

Methods

Two hundred fifty patients with 1–14 brain metastases who had initially undergone GKS alone at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who received upfront whole brain radiation therapy were excluded. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine if various prognostic factors could predict overall survival, distant brain failure, and local control.

Results

Median overall survival was 7.1 months and the 1-year local control rate was 91.5%. Median time to distant brain failure was 8.0 months. On univariate analysis an increasing total tumor volume was significantly associated with worse survival (p = 0.031) whereas the number of brain metastases, analyzed as a continuous variable, was not (p = 0.082). After adjusting for age, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, and extracranial disease on multivariate analysis, total tumor volume was found to be a better predictor of overall survival (p = 0.046) than number of brain metastases analyzed as a continuous variable (p = 0.098). A total tumor volume cutoff value of ≥ 2 cm3 (p = 0.008) was a stronger predictor of overall survival than the number of brain metastases (p = 0.098). Larger tumor volume and extracranial disease, but not the number of brain metastases, were predictive of distant brain failure on multivariate analysis. Local tumor control at 1 year was 97% for lesions < 2 cm3 compared with 75% for lesions ≥ 2 cm3 (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

After adjusting for other factors, a total brain metastasis volume was a strong and independent predictor for overall survival, distant brain failure, and local control, even when considering the number of metastases.

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Wei Dong Zhu, Qi Huang, Xi Ye Li, Hong Sai Chen, Zhao Yan Wang and Hao Wu

OBJECT

Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal (IAC) is an extremely rare type of tumor, and only 50 cases have been reported in the literature prior to this study. The aim in this study was to describe the symptomatology, radiological features, and surgical outcomes for patients with cavernous hemangioma of the IAC and to discuss the diagnostic criteria and treatment strategy for the disease.

METHODS

The study included 6 patients with cavernous hemangioma of the IAC. All patients presented with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus, and 2 also suffered from vertigo. Five patients reported a history of facial symptoms with hemispasm or palsy: 3 had progressive facial weakness, 1 had a hemispasm, and 1 had a history of recovery from sudden facial paresis. All patients underwent CT and MRI to rule out intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas and facial nerve neuromas. Five patients had their tumors surgically removed, while 1 patient, who did not have facial problems, was followed up with a wait-and-scan approach.

RESULTS

All patients had a presurgical diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the IAC, which was confirmed pathologically in the 5 patients who underwent surgical removal of the tumor. The translabyrinthine approach was used to remove the tumor in 4 patients, while the middle cranial fossa approach was used in the 1 patient who still had functional hearing. Tumors adhered to cranial nerves VII and/or VIII and were difficult to dissect from nerve sheaths during surgeries. Complete hearing loss occurred in all 5 patients. In 3 patients, the facial nerve could not be separated from the tumor, and primary end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Intact facial nerve preservation was achieved in 2 patients. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year after treatment, and MRI showed no evidence of tumor regrowth. All patients experienced some level of recovery in facial nerve function.

CONCLUSIONS

Cavernous hemangioma of the IAC can be diagnosed preoperatively through analysis of clinical features and neuroimaging. Early surgical intervention may preserve the functional integrity of the facial nerve and provide a better outcome after nerve reconstruction. However, preservation of functional hearing may not be achieved, even with the retrosigmoid or middle cranial fossa approaches. The translabyrinthine approach seems to be the most appropriate approach overall, as the facial nerve can be easily located and reconstructed.

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Bing Zhou, Qian Huang, Ping-Hung Shen, Shun-Jiu Cui, Cheng-Shuo Wang, Yun-Chuan Li, Zhen-Kun Yu, Xiao-Hong Chen and Ting Ye

OBJECT

This study was undertaken to analyze the results of a novel surgical method—the endoscopic prelacrimal recess approach (PLRA)—in patients with tumors involving the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) and infratemporal fossa (ITF). The surgical technique and indications for this approach are also discussed.

METHODS

The authors analyzed data from 7 cases involving patients who underwent resection of PPF and ITF tumors by means of the endoscopic PLRA from 2004 to 2013. Preoperative and postoperative imaging studies were available in all cases and were reviewed. The surgical specimens were all confirmed to be schwannomas.

RESULTS

All tumors were completely resected via endoscopic PLRA. There were no recurrences noted over a 28-month follow-up period. In 4 cases, the patients experienced postoperative facial numbness during the first two weeks after surgery, which gradually lessened thereafter. One patient continued to have mild facial numbness at most recent follow-up. The numbness had fully resolved in the other 3 cases.

CONCLUSIONS

The intranasal endoscopic removal of schwannoma from PPF and ITF via PLRA can spare the whole lateral nasal wall, resulting in a reduction in morbidity. This is a novel minimally invasive surgical method for PPF and ITF tumors.