Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 22 items for

  • Author or Editor: Chen Shi x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Yu-quan Shi and Xian-cheng Chen

✓ A four-grade classification scheme for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) is proposed. Grading is based on 1) the size of the AVM; 2) its location and depth; 3) its arterial supply; and 4) its venous drainage. Each of these aspects is divided into four grades with respect to the difficulty it poses for surgical excision. A description of the grading system and its application is given. This grading scale has been correlated with the operative morbidity and mortality in 100 cases of excised intracranial AVM's. The results show that the higher the grade of AVM, the greater the risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. This grading scale is simple and easy to apply. It can guide neurosurgeons in selecting AVM patients suitable for operation, in determining the best type of operation to perform, and in predicting operative difficulties as well as postoperative results.

Restricted access

Yu-quan Shi and Xian-cheng Chen

✓ Sixteen patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) located in the striatothalamocapsular region were treated microsurgically at the Hau Shan Hospital, Shanghai. These AVM's had a tendency to bleed intracerebrally and typically presented with hemiplegia, hemianesthesia, and hemianopsia. Angiographically the lesions were primarily located in the triangle of Reil. Postoperative outcome was not as good as that of AVM's in other locations, but the operation may have prevented the risk of further hemorrhage. This report details the operative technique used and the clinical course in this group of patients.

Restricted access

Liang Xu, Yong Qiu, Zhonghui Chen, Benlong Shi, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Zezhang Zhu and Xu Sun

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to evaluate the correction results of traditional dual growing rods (DGRs) on axial rotation using CT scans and to further explore the relationships between axial and torso deformities in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS).

METHODS

Patients with EOS who were treated with traditional DGRs between January 2006 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Plain radiographs were used to assess the degree of coronal and sagittal deformity. The apical vertebral rotation (AVR) and rib hump (RH) were measured on CT scans at the apical vertebra. Pearson or Spearman rank correlation analyses were used to analyze the associations between spinal and torso deformities.

RESULTS

A total of 27 patients (10 boys and 17 girls, average age 6.5 ± 1.7 years) were enrolled in this study. The average number of lengthenings per patient was 5.0 ± 1.9, with a mean follow-up duration of 52.9 ± 18.2 months. The apical vertebral translation, apical vertebral body–rib ratio (AVB-R), AVR, and RH parameters were significantly decreased after the initial surgery (p < 0.05) but showed notable progression at the latest follow-up evaluation (p < 0.05). The preoperative AVR and its correction after index surgery were significantly correlated with the preoperative values as well as with the corrections of the major Cobb angle, AVB-R, and RH. During the follow-up period, significant correlations were found between the deterioration of AVR and the AVB-R and also between the deterioration of AVR and the RH from the initial surgery to the latest follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Significant AVR correction can be achieved by DGR techniques after the initial surgery. However, this technique weakly prevents the deterioration of AVR during the follow-up period.

Full access

Dong Wang, Shao-Qin Zheng, Xian-Cai Chen, Shi-Wen Jiang and Hai-Bin Chen

OBJECT

Nutritional support is highly recommended for reducing the risk of nosocomial infections, such as pneumonitis, in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Currently, there is no consensus for the preferred route of feeding. The authors compared the risks of pneumonitis and other important outcomes associated with small intestinal and gastric feeding in patients with severe TBI.

METHODS

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Relevant randomized controlled trials (up to December 16, 2013) that compared small bowel to gastric feeding in patients with severe TBI were identified from searches in the PubMed and Embase databases. The primary outcome was risk of pneumonia. Secondary outcomes included ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality, length of intensive care unit stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, total number of complications, aspiration, diarrhea, distention, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Injury Severity Score, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score.

RESULTS

Five randomized controlled trials with 325 participants in total were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with gastric feeding, small bowel feeding was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of pneumonitis (risk ratio [RR] 0.67; 95% CI 0.52–0.87; p = 0.002; I2 = 0.0%) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.34–0.81; p = 0.003; I2 = 0.0%). Small intestinal feeding was also associated with a decrease in the total number of complications (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.20–0.93; p = 0.03; I2 = 68%). However, small intestinal feeding did not seem to significantly convert any of the other end points in the meta-analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

The limited evidence suggests that small bowel feeding in patients with severe TBI is associated with a risk of pneumonia that is lower than that with gastric feeding. From this result, the authors recommend the use of small intestinal feeding to reduce the incidence of pneumonitis in patients with severe TBI.

Restricted access

Wei-Ying Yue, Su-Huan Yu, Shi-Guang Zhao and Zhong-Ping Chen

Object

Astrocytoma may progress rapidly or remain stable for many years. To clarify whether molecular characteristics could be prognostic factors, several cell cycling–associated molecular alterations in the diffuse astrocytoma have been investigated.

Methods

Thirty-three patients in whom WHO Grade II astrocytoma had been initially diagnosed were assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 consisted of 10 patients with malignant progression; the tumor had recurred within 5 years and histological analysis had confirmed that the tumor progressed to Grade III or IV. Group 2 consisted of 10 patients in whom there was no malignant progression; the tumor recurred within 5 years, but histological analysis confirmed that the tumor remained at Grade II. Group 3 consisted of 13 patients who did not experience recurrence within 5 years. Expression of Ki 67, TP53, p27, and p21 was examined using immunohistochemical analysis for the tumor samples obtained during the first and second (in recurrent cases) surgeries. Exons 5, 7, and 8 of TP53 were scanned by DNA sequencing.

Results

The Ki 67 labeling index expression was significantly higher in Group 1 (even though it was similar between initial and recurrent tumors) than that of Group 3 (p < 0.05). However, there was no difference between Group 2 (both initial and recurrent tumors) and Group 3. The TP53 protein accumulation was also higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 or 3 (p < 0.05); a difference in TP53 expression was not found between Groups 2 and 3. The p27 and p21 was expressed in all cases, but no predictive values were found. The p53 mutation was found only in 6 cases in Group 1.

Conclusions

Overexpression of TP53, TP53 mutation, and Ki 67 labeling index could be molecular markers in astrocytomas predicting malignant progression.

Restricted access

Ye Tian, Zhige Shi, Shu Yang, Yingzhu Chen and Shiyao Bao

Object

The aim of this study was to determine the relation between changes in myelin basic protein (MBP) levels during the acute and subacute phases of central nervous system injury following whole-brain radiation and delayed demyelination in the radiation-injured brain tissue.

Methods

Adult Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with single fractions of 2, 10, or 30 Gy of whole-brain radiation. The authors measured MBP gene expression and protein levels in the brain tissue by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 1 week and 1–3 months following irradiation to monitor myelin changes in the brain. Demyelination was determined with Luxol fast blue myelin staining and routine histopathological and electron microscopy examination of injured brain tissue. The changes in MBP levels in the different animal groups at specific time points were correlated with demyelination in corresponding dose groups.

Results

At 1 month after applying the 10 and 30 Gy of radiation, MBP mRNA expression showed a transient but significant decrease, followed by recovery to baseline levels at 3 months after treatment. The MBP levels were decreased by only 70–75% at 1 month after 10 and 30 Gy of radiation. At 2–3 months after applying the higher dose of 30 Gy, however, the MBP levels continued to decline, and typical demyelination changes were observed with myelin staining and ultrastructural examination.

Conclusions

The authors' results suggest that the early radiation-induced MBP changes between 1 and 3 months after single treatments of 10 and 30 Gy of radiation to the whole brain are indicative of permanent injury shown as demyelination of irradiated brain tissue.

Restricted access

Liang Xu, Benlong Shi, Yong Qiu, Zhonghui Chen, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Qingshuang Zhou, Zezhang Zhu and Xu Sun

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to quantify the response of the cervical spine to the surgical correction of Scheuermann’s kyphosis (SK) and to postoperative proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK).

METHODS

Fifty-nine patients (mean age 14.6 ± 2.3 years) were enrolled in the study: 35 patients in a thoracic SK (T-SK) group and 24 in a thoracolumbar SK (TL-SK) group. The mean follow-up period was 47.2 ± 17.6 months. Radiographic data, PJK-related complications, and patient-reported outcomes were compared between groups.

RESULTS

The global kyphosis significantly decreased postoperatively, and similar correction rates were observed between the two groups (mean 47.1% ± 8.6% [T-SK] vs 45.8% ± 9.4% [TL-SK], p = 0.585). The cervical lordosis (CL) in the T-SK group notably decreased from 21.4° ± 13.3° to 13.1° ± 12.4° after surgery and was maintained at 14.9° ± 10.7° at the latest follow-up, whereas in the TL-SK group, CL considerably increased from 7.2° ± 10.7° to 11.7° ± 11.1° after surgery and to 13.8° ± 8.9° at the latest follow-up. PJK was identified in 16 patients (27.1%). Its incidence in the TL-SK group was notably higher than it was in the T-SK group (41.6% [n = 10] vs 17.1% [n = 6], p = 0.037). Compared with non-PJK patients, PJK patients had greater CL and lower pain scores on the Scoliosis Research Society–22 questionnaire (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Hyperkyphosis correction eventually resulted in reciprocal changes in the cervical spine, with CL notably decreased in the T-SK group but significantly increased in the TL-SK group. Patients developing PJK have increased CL, which seems to have a negative effect on patients’ health-related quality of life.

Restricted access

Shi-hao Zheng, Jin-lan Huang, Ming Chen, Bing-long Wang, Qi-shui Ou and Sheng-yue Huang

OBJECTIVE

Glioma is the most common form of brain tumor and has high lethality. The authors of this study aimed to elucidate the efficiency of preoperative inflammatory markers, including neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and their paired combinations as tools for the preoperative diagnosis of glioma, with particular interest in its most aggressive form, glioblastoma (GBM).

METHODS

The medical records of patients newly diagnosed with glioma, acoustic neuroma, meningioma, or nonlesional epilepsy at 3 hospitals between January 2011 and February 2016 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The values of NLR, dNLR, PLR, LMR, and PNI were compared among patients suffering from glioma, acoustic neuroma, meningioma, and nonlesional epilepsy and healthy controls by using nonparametric tests. Correlations between NLR, dNLR, PLR, LMR, PNI, and tumor grade were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic significance of NLR, dNLR, PLR, LMR, PNI, and their paired combinations for glioma, particularly GBM.

RESULTS

A total of 750 patients with glioma (Grade I, 81 patients; Grade II, 208 patients; Grade III, 169 patients; Grade IV [GBM], 292 patients), 44 with acoustic neuroma, 271 with meningioma, 102 with nonlesional epilepsy, and 682 healthy controls were included in this study. Compared with healthy controls and patients with acoustic neuroma, meningioma, or nonlesional epilepsy, the patients with glioma had higher values of preoperative NLR and dNLR as well as lower values of LMR and PNI, whereas PLR was higher in glioma patients than in healthy controls and patients with nonlesional epilepsy. Subgroup analysis revealed a positive correlation between NLR, dNLR, PLR, and tumor grade but a negative correlation between LMR, PNI, and tumor grade in glioma. For glioma diagnosis, the area under the curve (AUC) obtained from the ROC curve was 0.722 (0.697–0.747) for NLR, 0.696 (0.670–0.722) for dNLR, 0.576 (0.549–0.604) for PLR, 0.760 (0.738–0.783) for LMR, and 0.672 (0.646–0.698) for PNI. The best diagnostic performance was obtained with the combination of NLR+LMR and dNLR+LMR, with AUCs of 0.777 and 0.778, respectively. Additionally, NLR (AUC 0.860, 95% CI 0.832–0.887), dNLR (0.840, 0.810–0.869), PLR (0.678, 0.641–0.715), LMR (0.837, 0.811–0.863), and PNI (0.740, 0.706–0.773) had significant predictive value for GBM compared with healthy controls and other disease groups. As compared with the Grade I–III glioma patients, the GBM patients had an AUC of 0.811 (95% CI 0.778–0.844) for NLR, 0.797 (0.763–0.832) for dNLR, 0.662 (0.622–0.702) for PLR, 0.743 (0.707–0.779) for LMR, and 0.661(0.622–0.701) for PNI. For the paired combinations, NLR+LMR demonstrated the highest accuracy.

CONCLUSIONS

The NLR+LMR combination was revealed as a noninvasive biomarker with relatively high sensitivity and specificity for glioma diagnosis, the differential diagnosis of glioma from acoustic neuroma and meningioma, GBM diagnosis, and the differential diagnosis of GBM from low-grade glioma.

Restricted access

Xin-Zhi Sun, Zhong-Qiang Chen, Qiang Qi, Zhao-Qing Guo, Chui-Guo Sun, Wei-Shi Li and Yan Zeng

Object

In this paper, the authors aimed to summarize the clinical characteristics of ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) associated with dural ossification (DO) and to identify improved methods for preoperative diagnosis.

Methods

Thirty-six patients who had undergone OLF surgery between February 2005 and September 2009 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: one that included patients with intraoperative evidence of DO and a second group that included patients without DO. The clinical features of DO were summarized and the neurological status of the patients was evaluated pre- and postoperatively.

Results

The incidence rate of DO associated with OLF was 39% (14/36). The sensitivity and specificity of the tram track sign were found to be 93% and 59%, respectively. Dural ossification was found among 86% of the patients with tuberous type Sato classification. The postoperative neurological status of patients was generally improved relative to that observed prior to surgery, although neurological recovery did not differ between the 2 groups. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage was the main complication, occurring predominantly in the patients with DO, and all leaks resolved in all patients after comprehensive treatments.

Conclusions

The tram track sign and Sato classification were found to be useful for preoperative diagnosis of DO and for determining the surgical procedure to be performed. Dural ossification had no effect on postoperative neurological recovery.

Restricted access

Conglin Jiang, Xiang Zou, Renqing Zhu, Yimin Shi, Zehan Wu, Fan Zhao and Liang Chen

OBJECTIVE

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is found in approximately 40% of intracerebral hemorrhages and is associated with increased mortality and poor functional outcome. Cognitive impairment is one of the complications and occurs due to various pathological changes. Amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation and neuroinflammation, and the Alzheimer disease–like pathology, may contribute to cognitive impairment. Iron, the degradation product of hemoglobin, correlates with Aβ. In this study, the authors investigated the correlation between Aβ accumulation with enhanced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in a rat model of IVH.

METHODS

Nine male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent an intraventricular injection of autologous blood. Another 9 rats served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed by the Morris water maze and T-maze rewarded alternation tests. Biomarkers of Aβ accumulation, neuroinflammation, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation were examined.

RESULTS

Cognitive function was impaired in the autologous blood injection group compared with the control group. In the blood injection group, Aβ accumulation was observed, with a co-located correlation between iron storage protein ferritin and Aβ. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme–1 (BACE1) activity was elevated. Microgliosis and astrogliosis were observed in hippocampal CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus areas, with elevated proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor–α and interleukin-1. Protein levels of phosphorylated JNK were increased after blood injection.

CONCLUSIONS

Aβ accumulation and enhanced neuroinflammation have a role in cognitive impairment after IVH. A potential therapeutic method requires further investigation.