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Cheerag D. Upadhyaya, Paul Park, and Frank La Marca

✓ Chyloretroperitoneum is an uncommon complication following spinal surgery. The authors present the case of a patient in whom conservative treatment and initial surgical measures failed to relieve varied symptoms of postsurgical chyloretroperitoneum. Following attempts at conservative management, a peritoneal window was surgically created to divert lymphatic flow from the retroperitoneal space into the peritoneal space, where it was resorbed. This unique surgical technique provides yet another option in the treatment of refractory chyloretroperitoneum following anterior lumbar spinal surgery. The authors describe their technique and review retroperitoneal lymphatic anatomy along with similar case reports in the literature.

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Cheerag D. Upadhyaya and Matthew E. Fewel

Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches are gaining popularity in many surgical fields. Potential advantages include reduced blood loss, shorter length of stay, and less soft-tissue trauma. Potential disadvantages include inadequate deformity correction, increased fluoroscopy, longer operative times, and decreased posterolateral fusion surface area exposure.

This video demonstrates the key steps in our mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) using an expandable tubular retractor, placement of cannulated pedicle instrumentation, and subsequent deformity correction. The video demonstrates positioning, surgical opening through a midline incision, a bilateral Wiltse plane tubular approach for the TLIF, placement of bilateral cannulated pedicle screws, and deformity correction.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/Jj7w4i2DTMQ.

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Cheerag Upadhyaya, John Ziewacs, and Praveen Mummaneni

Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches are gaining popularity in many surgical fields. Potential advantages include reduced blood loss, shorter length of stay, and less soft-tissue trauma. Potential disadvantages include inadequate deformity correction, increased fluoroscopy, longer operative times, and decreased posterolateral fusion surface area exposure.

This video demonstrates the key steps in our mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) using an expandable tubular retractor, placement of cannulated pedicle instrumentation, and subsequent deformity correction. The video demonstrates positioning, surgical opening through a midline incision, a bilateral Wiltse plane tubular approach for the TLIF, placement of bilateral cannulated pedicle screws, and deformity correction.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/9GH3qsCGX3E.

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Cheerag D. Upadhyaya, Philip A. Starr, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

The authors review the literature on the treatment of spinal deformity in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and formulate a treatment algorithm.

Methods

The authors provide representative cases of patients with PD and spinal deformity who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) or spinal surgery.

Results

In patients with PD and spinal deformity who undergo spinal surgery there is a high rate of acute and delayed complications. Patients who undergo DBS, while having significantly fewer complications, often do not regain sagittal balance.

Conclusions

Cases involving PD and camptocormia have a high rate of complications when spinal surgery is performed. The authors prefer to offer spinal surgery only to patients with coexisting spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy or myelopathy. Patients with PD and camptocormia without spinal stenosis may be considered for DBS, but the results are mixed.

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Cheerag D. Upadhyaya, Sigurd Berven, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is a powerful technique for correcting a fixed sagittal plane deformity. The authors report the case of a 51-year-old man with a history of multiple prior lumbar operations, flat-back syndrome, thoracic kyphosis, and radiculopathy, who underwent deformity correction surgery with T3–S1 pedicle screw fixation and L-3 PSO. Progressive spondylolisthesis of the PSO segment associated with rod fracture then developed. The patient subsequently underwent anterior and posterior revision surgery. This case is a rare instance of spondylolisthesis following PSO.

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Jason S. Cheng, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Jau-Ching Wu, Tsung-Hsi Tu, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches have gained popularity in many surgical fields. Potential advantages to a minimally invasive, spinal intradural approach include decreased operative blood loss, shorter hospitalization, and less post-operative pain. Potential disadvantages include longer operative times, decreased exposure, and difficulty closing the dura. Prior case series from our group and others have demonstrated successful tumor resections using MIS techniques without increased complications. In this 3D video, we demonstrate the key steps in our mini-open, transpinous approach for the resection of an intradural, extramedullary lumbar schwannoma. This operation is performed through a midline incision confined to one or two levels. The spinous process is removed. The paraspinal muscles are spread using a series of sequentially larger tubular dilators, and the first dilator is placed in the space previously occupied by the target level spinous process. The expandable tube retractor is then placed over the largest dilator and docked into place over the target laminae. The expandable tubular retractor is 6 centimeters in depth and 2.5 centimeters in width before expansion and is adjustable to 9 centimeters in depth and 4–5 centimeters in diameter which allows removal of intradural lesions confined to one or two spinal segments.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/l_C4VruKYng.

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Cheerag D. Upadhyaya, Jau-Ching Wu, Gregory Trost, Regis W. Haid, Vincent C. Traynelis, Bobby Tay, Domagoj Coric, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

There are now 3 randomized, multicenter, US FDA investigational device exemption, industry-sponsored studies comparing arthroplasty with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for single-level cervical disease with 2 years of follow-up. These 3 studies evaluated the Prestige ST, Bryan, and ProDisc-C artificial discs. The authors analyzed the combined results of these trials.

Methods

A total of 1213 patients with symptomatic, single-level cervical disc disease were randomized into 2 treatment arms in the 3 randomized trials. Six hundred twenty-one patients received an artificial cervical disc, and 592 patients were treated with ACDF. In the three trials, 94% of the arthroplasty group and 87% of the ACDF group have completed 2 years of follow-up. The authors analyzed the 2-year data from these 3 trials including previously unpublished source data. Statistical analysis was performed with fixed and random effects models.

Results

The authors' analysis revealed that segmental sagittal motion was preserved with arthroplasty (preoperatively 7.26° and postoperatively 8.14°) at the 2-year time point. The fusion rate for ACDF at 2 years was 95%. The Neck Disability Index, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Mental, and Physical Component Summaries, neck pain, and arm pain scores were not statistically different between the groups at the 24-month follow-up. The arthroplasty group demonstrated superior results at 24 months in neurological success (RR 0.595, I2 = 0%, p = 0.006). The arthroplasty group had a lower rate of secondary surgeries at the 2-year time point (RR 0.44, I2 = 0%, p = 0.004). At the 2-year time point, the reoperation rate for adjacent-level disease was lower for the arthroplasty group when the authors analyzed the combined data set using a fixed effects model (RR 0.460, I2 = 2.9%, p = 0.030), but this finding was not significant using a random effects model. Adverse event reporting was too heterogeneous between the 3 trials to combine for analysis.

Conclusions

Both anterior cervical discectomy and fusion as well as arthroplasty demonstrate excellent 2-year surgical results for the treatment of 1-level cervical disc disease with radiculopathy. Arthroplasty is associated with a lower rate of secondary surgery and a higher rate of neurological success at 2 years. Arthroplasty may be associated with a lower rate of adjacent-level disease at 2 years, but further follow-up and analysis are needed to confirm this finding.

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Cheerag D. Upadhyaya and Praveen V. Mumaneni

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Cheerag D. Upadhyaya, Jau-Ching Wu, Cynthia T. Chin, Gopalakrishnan Balamurali, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

The accurate intraoperative localization of the correct thoracic spine level remains a challenging problem in both open and minimally invasive spine surgery. The authors describe a technique of using preoperatively placed percutaneous fiducial screws to localize the area of interest in the thoracic spine, and they assess the safety and efficacy of the technique.

Methods

To avoid wrong-level surgery in the thoracic spine, the authors preoperatively placed a percutaneous 5-mm fiducial screw at the level of intended surgery using CT guidance. Plain radiographs and CT images with reconstructed views can then be referenced in the operating room to verify the surgical level, and the fiducial screw is easily identified on intraoperative fluoroscopy. The authors compared a group of 26 patients who underwent preoperative (often outpatient) fiducial screw placement prior to open or minimally invasive thoracic spine surgery to a historical group of 26 patients who had intraoperative localization with fluoroscopy alone.

Results

In the treatment group of 26 patients, no complications related to fiducial screw placement occurred, and there was no incidence of wrong-level surgery. In comparison, there were no wrong-level surgeries in the historical cohort of 26 patients who underwent mini-open or open thoracic spine surgery without placement of a fiducial screw. However, the authors found that the intraoperative localization fluoroscopy time was greatly reduced when a fiducial screw localization technique was employed.

Conclusions

The aforementioned technique for intraoperative localization is safe, efficient, and accurate for identifying the target level in thoracic spine exposures. The fiducial marker screw can be placed using CT guidance on an outpatient basis. There is a reduction in the amount of intraoperative fluoroscopy time needed for localization in the fiducial screw group.

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Michael G. Fehlings and Aria Fallah