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Doo-Sik Kong, Yong Hwy Kim and Chang-Ki Hong

OBJECTIVE

Spheno-orbital meningiomas (SOMs) are complicated tumors that involve multiple structures at initial presentation, such as the orbit, temporalis muscle, sphenoidal bone, cavernous sinus, and temporal or infratemporal fossa. The infiltrative growth and complexity of this type of meningioma make total resection impossible. In this study, the authors evaluated the surgical outcome of the endoscopic transorbital approach (eTOA) for SOM. In addition, they identified optimal indications for the use of eTOA and analyzed the feasibility of this approach as a minimally invasive surgery for SOMs of varying types and locations at presentation.

METHODS

Between September 2016 and December 2019, the authors performed eTOA in 41 patients with SOM with or without orbital involvement at 3 independent tertiary institutions. The authors evaluated the surgical outcomes of eTOA for SOM and investigated several factors that affect the outcome, such as tumor volume, tumor location, and the presence of lateral orbitotomy. Gross-total resection (GTR) was defined as complete resection of the tumor or intended subtotal resection except the cavernous sinus. This study was undertaken as a multicenter project (006) of the Korean Society of Endoscopic Neurosurgery (KOSEN-006).

RESULTS

There were 41 patients (5 men and 36 women) with a median age of 52.0 years (range 24–73 years). Twenty-one patients had tumors that involved the orbital structure, while 14 patients had tumors that presented at the sphenoidal bone along with other structures, such as the cavernous sinus, temporal fossa, and infratemporal fossa. Fifteen patients had the globulous type of tumor and 26 patients had the en plaque type. Overall, GTR was achieved in 21 of 41 patients (51.2%), and complications included CSF leaks in 2 patients and wound complications in 2 patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the en plaque type of tumor, absence of lateral orbital rim osteotomy, involvement of the temporal floor or infratemporal fossa, and involvement of the orbit and medial one-third of the greater sphenoidal wing were closely associated with lower GTR rates (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the en plaque type of tumor and the absence of lateral orbital rim osteotomy were significant predictors for lower GTR rate.

CONCLUSIONS

The en plaque type of SOM remains a challenge despite advances in technique such as minimally invasive surgery. Overall, clinical outcome of eTOA for SOM was comparable to the transcranial surgery. To achieve GTR, eTOA is recommended, with additional lateral orbital rim osteotomy for globulous-type tumors, without involving the floor of the temporal and infratemporal fossa.

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Kwang-Chun Cho, Jung-Jae Kim, Chang-Ki Jang, Chang-Ki Hong, Jin-Yang Joo and Yong Bae Kim

OBJECTIVE

Rete middle cerebral artery (MCA) is extremely rare and has not been frequently discussed. Rete MCA is a weblike anomaly of the MCA that does not coalesce and forms a prominent, large single branch from the plexiform vessels in the fetal stage. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with rete MCA.

METHODS

A total of 2262 cerebral digital subtraction angiography procedures were performed on 1937 patients at the authors’ institution from February 2013 to May 2017. Data analysis included age, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, coexisting cerebral arterial anomalies, and operative methods and findings.

RESULTS

Rete MCAs were found in 13 patients, and the incidence of this anomaly was 0.67% (13 of 1937) in this study. Of the 13 patients, 3 had hemorrhagic strokes, 6 had ischemic strokes, and 4 had no symptoms. Eight patients underwent conservative treatment, and 5 patients underwent surgical treatment. Rete MCA is considered a congenital disease of the cerebral vasculature with the possibility of an acquired abnormality, such as an aneurysm, caused by hemodynamic stress. Although an epidemiological survey of rete MCA was not conducted, it is assumed that rete MCA has a high prevalence in Asia. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke events are fairly common in rete MCA.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinicians should understand the radiological and clinical features of patients with rete MCA to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. This anomaly should be differentiated from other vascular diseases and patients presenting incidentally should be carefully monitored because of their vulnerability to both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes.

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Hun Ho Park, Sang Duk Hong, Yong Hwy Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, Kyung In Woo, In-Sik Yun and Doo-Sik Kong

OBJECTIVE

Trigeminal schwannomas are rare neoplasms with an incidence of less than 1% that require a comprehensive surgical strategy. These tumors can occur anywhere along the path of the trigeminal nerve, capable of extending intradurally into the middle and posterior fossae, and extracranially into the orbital, pterygopalatine, and infratemporal fossa. Recent advancements in endoscopic surgery have suggested a more minimally invasive and direct route for tumors in and around Meckel’s cave, including the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) and endoscopic transorbital superior eyelid approach (ETOA). The authors assess the feasibility and outcomes of EEA and ETOA for trigeminal schwannomas.

METHODS

A retrospective multicenter analysis was performed on 25 patients who underwent endoscopic surgical treatment for trigeminal schwannomas between September 2011 and February 2019. Thirteen patients (52%) underwent EEA and 12 (48%) had ETOA, one of whom underwent a combined approach with retrosigmoid craniotomy. The extent of resection, clinical outcome, and surgical morbidity were analyzed to evaluate the feasibility and selection of surgical approach between EEA and ETOA based on predominant location of trigeminal schwannomas.

RESULTS

According to predominant tumor location, 9 patients (36%) had middle fossa tumors (Samii type A), 8 patients (32%) had dumbbell-shaped tumors located in the middle and posterior cranial fossae (Samii type C), and another 8 patients (32%) had extracranial tumors (Samii type D). Gross-total resection (GTR, n = 12) and near-total resection (NTR, n = 7) were achieved in 19 patients (76%). The GTR/NTR rates were 81.8% for ETOA and 69.2% for EEA. The GTR/NTR rates of ETOA and EEA according to the classifications were 100% and 50% for tumors confined to the middle cranial fossa, 75% and 33% for dumbbell-shaped tumors located in the middle and posterior cranial fossae, and 50% and 100% for extracranial tumors. There were no postoperative CSF leaks. The most common preoperative symptom was trigeminal sensory dysfunction, which improved in 15 of 21 patients (71.4%). Three patients experienced new postoperative complications such as vasospasm (n = 1), wound infection (n = 1), and medial gaze palsy (n = 1).

CONCLUSIONS

ETOA provides adequate access and resectability for trigeminal schwannomas limited in the middle fossa or dumbbell-shaped tumors located in the middle and posterior fossae, as does EEA for extracranial tumors. Tumors predominantly involving the posterior fossa still remain a challenge in endoscopic surgery.

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Mohammad Abolfotoh, Wenya Linda Bi, Chang-Ki Hong, Kaith K. Almefty, Abraham Boskovitz, Ian F. Dunn and Ossama Al-Mefty

OBJECT

The combined microscopic and endoscopic technique has shown significant advantages in the management of various lesions through different approaches. Endoscopic-assisted techniques have frequently been applied to cerebellopontine angle (CPA) surgery in the context of minimally invasive craniotomies. In this paper the authors report on the use of the endoscope in the CPA as a tool to increase the extent of resection, minimize complications, and preserve the function of the delicate CPA structures. They also describe a technique of the simultaneous use of the microscope and endoscope in the CPA and dissection of CPA tumors under tandem endoscopic and microscopic vision to overcome the shortcomings of introducing the endoscope alone in the CPA. The reliability of using the microscope alone in dissecting CPA tumors is evaluated, as is the effectiveness of the combined technique in increasing the resectability of various types of CPA tumors.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 50 patients who underwent combined microscopic-endoscopic resection of CPA tumors by the senior author over a period of 3 years (February 2011 to February 2014) at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School. The reliability of the extent of microscopic removal was evaluated with endoscopic exploration. Additional resection was performed with both microscopic and the combined microscopic-endoscopic technique. Endoscopically verified total resection was validated by intraoperative or postoperative MRI. The function of the cranial nerves was evaluated to assess the impact of the combined technique on their function.

RESULTS

A tumor remnant was endoscopically identified in 69% of the 26 patients who were believed to have microscopic total resection. The utilization of the endoscopic visualization and dissection increased endoscopically verified total removal to 38 patients, and 82% of these patients had no sign of residual tumor on postoperative imaging. The technique was most effective with epidermoid tumors. There were a total of 17 new cranial nerve deficits in 10 patients. Preoperative fifth cranial nerve deficits improved in 52% and hearing improved in 29% of patients after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

This method provides simultaneous microscopic and endoscopic visualization and dissection techniques through skull-base approaches to CPA tumors. It overcomes some of the shortcomings of endoscopic-assisted surgery, further extends the surgical field, and increases the radicality of tumor resection with good functional outcomes.

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Joonho Chung, Sang Hyun Suh, Chang-Ki Hong, Jin-Yang Joo, Yong Cheol Lim, Yong Sam Shin and Yong Bae Kim

OBJECT

The purpose of this study was to report the authors' preliminary experience using self-expanding closed-cell stents deployed in small arteries (< 2 mm in diameter) to treat intracranial aneurysms.

METHODS

A total of 31 patients were studied. All subjects met the following criteria: 1) they received an Enterprise stent for treatment of a wide-necked aneurysm or a dissecting aneurysm or as part of a stent-salvage procedure; and 2) they had an Enterprise stent deployed in a small parent artery (< 2 mm in diameter) that had no atherosclerotic stenosis. Procedure-related complications and follow-up sizes of the parent arteries were evaluated for safety and patency.

RESULTS

There were 16 ruptured aneurysms and 15 unruptured aneurysms. Three (9.7%) of the 31 patients experienced procedure-related complications, and they all were asymptomatic. Follow-up angiography was performed in 27 patients (87.1%) (at a mean 15.5 months after surgery). Parent arteries with 2 acute angles (n = 4) were occluded in 3 cases (75.0%), and those with no acute angles (n = 13) or 1 acute angle (n = 6) showed 100% patency on follow-up angiography. There was a significant difference between the follow-up sizes (mean 1.72 ± 0.30 mm) of parent arteries and their sizes (mean 1.59 ± 0.26 mm) before treatment (95% CI − 0.254 to − 0.009 mm; p = 0.037, paired-samples t-test).

CONCLUSIONS

In the current series the deployment of self-expanding closed-cell stents in small arteries was safe and resulted in good patency, especially when the stents were deployed in segments of the parent artery with no acute angles or only 1 acute angle.

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Ji Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim, Sung-Hye Park, Seok Ho Hong, Kyu-Chang Wang and Byung-Kyu Cho

Object

Immature teratomas of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare neoplasms. Although adjuvant therapy is generally recommended after resection, the exact role of each therapeutic modality is not yet established. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological correlation and the role of resection to define the optimal treatment modalities for immature teratomas of the CNS.

Methods

Between 1987 and 2002, eight patients underwent radical surgery for a lesion diagnosed as a CNS immature teratoma at the authors' institution. The clinical courses of these patients and the pathological features of their tumors were retrospectively reviewed.

Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in six patients at the initial operation. The mean follow-up period was 75 months. Two patients received postoperative adjuvant therapies and two patients did not, against medical advice. None of the four patients experienced recurrence after long-term follow up. Another four patients, all of whom underwent GTR of the tumor, did not receive adjuvant therapy as part of a prospective treatment scheme. One of them exhibited early recurrence and metastasis. The tumor had pathological features denoting a high-grade (Norris Grade III) lesion and neurocytomatous differentiation.

Conclusions

Aggressive resection seems to be of utmost importance in the treatment of immature teratomas of the CNS. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be deferred if GTR is achieved in low-grade, immature teratomas, but adjuvant therapies may be warranted for high-grade ones.

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Yeon Soo Choo, Joonho Chung, Jin-Yang Joo, Yong Bae Kim and Chang-Ki Hong

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to determine predisposing factors for good clinical outcome in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage with borderline volumes (defined as a hematoma volume between 20 and 50 cm3) who had undergone treatment by stereotactic catheter drainage.

METHODS

From the 298 patients whose information had been prospectively collected in the institutional database between January 2010 and December 2013, 93 patients were included in this retrospective study and divided into 2 groups: best medical treatment alone (Group A, n = 44) and best medical treatment plus catheterization (Group B, n = 49). All patients met the following criteria: 1) a diagnosis of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, and 2) a borderline hematoma volume (20 to 50 cm3). Postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores and recovery of motor weakness were compared between the 2 groups, and predisposing factors for good clinical outcome were evaluated.

RESULTS

Patients in Group B showed earlier recovery of motor weakness and improved mRS scores than patients in Group A. The final mRS score at 12 months was better in Group B than in Group A (p = 0.006). Predisposing factors for a good clinical outcome were a hematoma volume < 30 cm3 (OR 6.158, 95% CI 1.221–31.053, p = 0.028), an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≥ 13 (OR 6.331, 95% CI 1.129–35.507, p = 0.036), the absence of internal capsule involvement (OR 4.680, 95% CI 1.152–19.010, p = 0.031), and catheterization (OR 13.376, 95% CI 2.423–73.842, p = 0.003) based on logistic regression analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Good clinical outcome can be expected after stereotactic catheter drainage in patients with a hematoma volume between 20 and 30 cm3, an initial GCS score ≥ 13, and the absence of internal capsule involvement. Among these patients, stereotactic catheter drainage may have a beneficial effect on early recovery of motor weakness and functional outcome, indicating that lateral-type basal ganglia hematoma compression not involving the internal capsule may be better treated using stereotactic catheter drainage than treated medically.

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Tae Hoon Roh, Seok-Gu Kang, Ju Hyung Moon, Kyoung Su Sung, Hun Ho Park, Se Hoon Kim, Eui Hyun Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, Chang-Ok Suh and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECTIVE

Following resection of glioblastoma (GBM), microscopic remnants of the GBM tumor remaining in nearby tissue cause tumor recurrence more often than for other types of tumors, even after gross-total resection (GTR). Although surgical oncologists traditionally resect some of the surrounding normal tissue, whether further removal of nearby tissue may improve survival in GBM patients is unknown. In this single-center retrospective study, the authors assessed whether lobectomy confers a survival benefit over GTR without lobectomy when treating GBMs in the noneloquent area.

METHODS

The authors selected 40 patients who had undergone GTR of a histopathologically diagnosed isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)–wild type GBM in the right frontal or temporal lobe and divided the patients into 2 groups according to whether GTR of the tumor involved lobectomy, defined as a supratotal resection (SupTR group, n = 20) or did not (GTR group, n = 20). Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scores were compared between groups (p ≤ 0.05 for statistically significant differences).

RESULTS

The median postoperative PFS times for each group were as follows: GTR group, 11.5 months (95% CI 8.8–14.2) and SupTR group, 30.7 months (95% CI 4.3–57.1; p = 0.007). The median postoperative OS times for each group were as follows: GTR group, 18.7 months (95% CI 14.3–23.1) and SupTR group, 44.1 months (95% CI 25.1–63.1; p = 0.040). The mean postoperative KPS scores (GTR, 76.5; SupTR, 77.5; p = 0.904) were not significantly different. In multivariate analysis, survival for the SupTR group was significantly longer than that for the GTR group in terms of both PFS (HR 0.230; 95% CI 0.090–0.583; p = 0.002) and OS (HR 0.247; 95% CI 0.086–0.704; p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS

In cases of completely resectable, noneloquent-area GBMs, SupTR provides superior PFS and OS without negatively impacting patient performance.

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Chiman Jeon, Chang-Ki Hong, Kyung In Woo, Sang Duk Hong, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Jung Won Choi, Ho Jun Seol and Doo-Sik Kong

OBJECTIVE

Tumors involving Meckel’s cave remain extremely challenging because of the surrounding complex neurovascular structures and deep-seated location. The authors investigated a new minimal-access technique using the endoscopic transorbital approach (eTOA) through the superior eyelid crease to Meckel’s cave and middle cranial fossa lesions and reviewed the most useful surgical procedures and pitfalls of this approach.

METHODS

Between September 2016 and January 2018, the authors performed eTOA in 9 patients with tumors involving Meckel’s cave and the middle cranial fossa. The lesions included trigeminal schwannoma in 4 patients, meningioma in 2 patients, metastatic brain tumor in 1 patient, chondrosarcoma in 1 patient, and dermoid cyst in 1 patient. In 7 of the 9 patients, eTOA alone was performed, while the other 2 patients underwent a combined eTOA and endoscopic endonasal approach or retrosigmoid craniotomy. Data including details of surgical techniques and clinical outcomes were recorded.

RESULTS

Gross-total resection was performed in 7 of the 9 patients (77.8%). Four patients underwent extended eTOA (with lateral orbital rim osteotomy). Drilling of the trapezoid sphenoid floor, a middle fossa “peeling” technique, and full visualization of Meckel’s cave were applied to approach the lesions. Tumors were exposed and removed extradurally in 3 patients and intradurally in 6 patients. There was no postoperative CSF leak.

CONCLUSIONS

The eTOA affords a direct route to access Meckel’s cave and middle cranial fossa lesions. With experience, this novel approach can be successfully applied to selected skull base lesions. To achieve successful removal of the tumor, emphasis should be placed on the importance of adequately removing the greater sphenoid wing and vertical crest. However, because of limited working space eTOA may not be an ideal approach for posterior fossa lesions.

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Doo-Sik Kong, Chang-Ki Hong, Sang Duk Hong, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Ho Jun Seol, Jiwoong Oh, Dong Gyu Kim and Yong Hwy Kim

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) and the transcranial approach (TCA) are good options for the treatment of tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas. The objective of this study was to identify the key anatomical features in TS meningiomas and compare the two surgical approaches.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical data in 178 patients with TS meningiomas treated at 3 institutions between January 2010 and July 2016. Patients with tumors encasing the internal carotid artery or anterior cerebral artery or involving the anterior clinoid process or cavernous sinus were excluded. Tumors were classified as high-lying or low-lying based on their location, and involvement of the optic canal was evaluated. The surgical outcomes of EEA and TCA were analyzed according to the relevant anatomical features.

RESULTS

During the study period, 84 patients underwent EEA and 94 patients underwent TCA. Based on preoperative MR images, 43 (24.2%) meningiomas were classified as high-lying tumors, 126 (70.8%) as low-lying, and 9 (5.0%) as nonspecific. Gross-total resection (GTR) was performed in 145 patients (81.5%); the GTR rate did not differ significantly between the EEA and TCA groups. Of 157 patients with preoperative visual disturbance, 140 had improved or stable vision postoperatively. However, 17 patients (9.6%) experienced some visual deterioration after surgery. The TCA group had a worse visual outcome than the EEA group in patients with preoperative optic canal involvement (77.6% vs 93.2%, p = 0.019), whereas there was no significant difference in visual outcome based on whether tumors were high-lying or low-lying.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study support EEA over TCA, at least with respect to visual improvement with acceptable complications, although TCA is still an effective approach for TS meningioma.