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Chad R. Gordon, Edward W. Swanson, Tormod Westvik, and Michael J. Yaremchuk

Large, full-thickness calvarial defects cause increased brain tissue compliance, often resulting in transient, transcranial herniation in the setting of normotensive intracranial pressures. Cranioplasty serves to protect the cerebrum from external injury, provide an aesthetic contour, and alleviate neurological symptoms. Traditional options for management include head elevation, osmotic diuresis, mild hyperventilation, durotomy with closure following fluid evacuation, expansile cranioplasty, lobectomy, and procedure abortion with prolonged helmet therapy. Patients treated conservatively with helmet therapy commonly are noncompliant and sustain repeated minor trauma to unprotected cerebral contents. Furthermore, recent literature suggests that early cranioplasty may improve outcomes and reduce costs. The authors present a novel solution, bipolar duraplasty, which allows safe, transient reduction of normotensive parenchymal herniation using bipolar electrocautery. The dura of the herniated sac is cauterized using a low-set, bipolar current in a series of sagittal and coronal lines, resulting in immediate contraction and reduction allowing for definitive cranioplasty. This new method was used in a patient with a 30-cm2 frontal bone defect following resection of a right falcine atypical meningioma. In this scenario, bipolar duraplasty was performed free of complication, and the patient has remained asymptomatic and greatly satisfied for 1 year since the procedure. This technique might facilitate earlier cranioplasty, could be applied to a wide range of patients, and may afford better neurological outcomes at a reduced cost.

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Gabriel F. Santiago, Amir Wolff, Micah Belzberg, and Chad R. Gordon

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David P. McMullen, Tessy M. Thomas, Matthew S. Fifer, Daniel N. Candrea, Francesco V. Tenore, Robert W. Nickl, Eric A. Pohlmeyer, Christopher Coogan, Luke E. Osborn, Adam Schiavi, Teresa Wojtasiewicz, Chad R. Gordon, Adam B. Cohen, Nick F. Ramsey, Wouter Schellekens, Sliman J. Bensmaia, Gabriela L. Cantarero, Pablo A. Celnik, Brock A. Wester, William S. Anderson, and Nathan E. Crone

Defining eloquent cortex intraoperatively, traditionally performed by neurosurgeons to preserve patient function, can now help target electrode implantation for restoring function. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore upper-limb motor control to paralyzed patients but require accurate placement of recording and stimulating electrodes to enable functional control of a prosthetic limb. Beyond motor decoding from recording arrays, precise placement of stimulating electrodes in cortical areas associated with finger and fingertip sensations allows for the delivery of sensory feedback that could improve dexterous control of prosthetic hands. In this study, the authors demonstrated the use of a novel intraoperative online functional mapping (OFM) technique with high-density electrocorticography to localize finger representations in human primary somatosensory cortex. In conjunction with traditional pre- and intraoperative targeting approaches, this technique enabled accurate implantation of stimulating microelectrodes, which was confirmed by postimplantation intracortical stimulation of finger and fingertip sensations. This work demonstrates the utility of intraoperative OFM and will inform future studies of closed-loop BMIs in humans.