Cemaliye B. Akyerli, Şirin Yüksel, Özge Can, E. Zeynep Erson-Omay, Yavuz Oktay, Erdal Coşgun, Ege Ülgen, Yiğit Erdemgil, Aydın Sav, Andreas von Deimling, Murat Günel, M. Cengiz Yakıcıer, M. Necmettin Pamir and Koray Özduman
Recent studies have established that hemispheric diffuse gliomas may be grouped into subsets on the basis of molecular markers; these subsets are loosely correlated with the histopathological diagnosis but are strong predictors of clinical tumor behavior. Based on an analysis of molecular and clinical parameters, the authors hypothesized that mutations of the telomerase promoter (TERTp-mut) mark separate oncogenic programs among isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and/or 2 (IDH) mutant (IDH-mut) and IDH wild-type (IDH-wt) diffuse gliomas independent of histopathology or WHO grade.
Four molecular subsets of the combined statuses of IDH and TERT-promoter mutations (double mutant, IDH only, TERT only, and double negative) were defined. Differences in age, anatomical location, molecular genetics, and survival rates in a surgical cohort of 299 patients with a total of 356 hemispheric diffuse gliomas (WHO Grade II, III, or IV) were analyzed.
TERTp-mut were present in 38.8% of IDH-mut and 70.2% of IDH-wt gliomas. The mutational status was stable in each patient at 57 recurrence events over a 2645-month cumulative follow-up period. Among patients with IDH-mut gliomas, those in the double-mutant subset had better survival and a lower incidence of malignant degeneration than those in the IDH-only subset. Of patients in the double-mutant subset, 96.3% were also positive for 1p/19q codeletions. All patients with 1p/19q codeletions had TERTp-mut. In patients with IDH-mut glioma, epidermal growth factor receptor or phosphatase and tensin homolog mutations were not observed, and copy-number variations were uncommon. Among IDH-wt gliomas, the TERT-only subset was associated with significantly higher age, higher Ki-67 labeling index, primary glioblastoma-specific oncogenic changes, and poor survival. The double-negative subset was genetically and biologically heterogeneous. Survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier, multivariate, and regression-tree analyses) confirmed that patients in the 4 molecular subsets had distinct prognoses.
Molecular subsets result in different tumor biology and clinical behaviors in hemispheric diffuse gliomas.
Ege Ülgen, Özge Can, Kaya Bilguvar, Yavuz Oktay, Cemaliye B. Akyerli, Ayça Erşen Danyeli, M. Cengiz Yakıcıer, O. Uğur Sezerman, M. Necmettin Pamir and Koray Özduman
Processes that cause or contribute to cancer, such as aging, exposure to carcinogens, or DNA damage repair deficiency (DDRd), create predictable and traceable nucleotide alterations in one’s genetic code (termed “mutational signatures”). Large studies have previously identified various such mutational signatures across cancers that can be attributed to the specific causative processes. To gain further insight into the processes in glioma development, the authors analyzed mutational signatures in adult diffuse gliomas (DGs).
Twenty-five DGs and paired blood samples were whole exome sequenced. Somatic mutational signatures were identified using 2 different methods. Associations of the signatures with age at diagnosis, molecular subset, and mutational load were investigated. As DDRd-related signatures were frequently observed, germline and somatic DDR gene mutations as well as microsatellite instability (MSI) status were determined for all samples. For validation of signature prevalence, publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used.
Each tumor had a unique combination of signatures. The most common signatures were signature 1 (88%, aging related), signature 3 (52%, homologous recombination related), and signature 15 (56%, mismatch repair related). Eighty-four percent of the tumors contained at least 1 DDRd signature. The findings were validated using public TCGA data. The weight of signature 1 positively correlated with age (r = 0.43) while cumulative weight of DDRd signatures negatively correlated with age (r = −0.16). Each subject had at least 1 germline/somatic alteration in a DDR gene, the most common being the risk single nucleotide polymorphism rs1800734 in MLH1. The rs1800734-AA genotype had a higher cumulative DDRd weight as well as higher mutational load; TP53 was the most common somatically altered DDR gene. MSI was observed in 24% of the tumors. No significant associations of MSI status with mutational load, rs1800734, or the cumulative weight of DDRd signatures were identified.
Current findings suggest that DDRd may act as a fundamental mechanism in gliomagenesis rather than being a random, secondary event.