The development of neurosurgery at Baylor College of Medicine began with the medical school’s relocation to the new Texas Medical Center in Houston in 1943. An academic service was organized in 1949 as a section of neurosurgery within Baylor’s Department of Surgery. Soon the practice, led by Dr. George Ehni, evolved to include clinical services at Methodist, Jefferson Davis (forerunner of Ben Taub), Texas Children’s, the Veterans Affairs, and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center hospitals. A neurosurgery residency program was established in 1954. As the clinical practice expanded, neurosurgery was upgraded from a section to a division and then to a department. It has been led by four chiefs/chairs over the past 60 years—Dr. George Ehni (1959–1979), Dr. Robert Grossman (1980–2004), Dr. Raymond Sawaya (2005–2014), and Dr. Daniel Yoshor (2015–2020). Since the 1950s, the department has drawn strength from its robust residency program, its research base in the medical school, and its five major hospital affiliates, which have largely remained unchanged (with the exception of Baylor St. Luke’s Medical Center replacing Methodist in 2004). The recent expansion of the residency program to 25 accredited positions and the growing strength of relationships with the “Baylor five” hospitals affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine portend a bright future.