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Jean G. de Oliveira, Luis A. B. Borba, Aziz Rassi-Neto, Samuel M. de Moura, Santiago L. Sanchez-Júnior, Márcio S. Rassi, Carlos Vanderlei M. de Holanda and Miguel Giudicissi-Filho

Object

Intracranial aneurysms may grow closer to anterior optic pathways, causing mass effect over these anatomical structures, including visual deficit. The authors retrospectively reviewed a series of aneurysms in patients presenting with visual field deficit caused by mass effect, to analyze the aneurysm's characteristics, the neurosurgical management of these aneurysms, as well as their clinical, visual, and radiological outcomes.

Methods

The authors reviewed the medical charts, neuroimaging examination results, and surgical videos of 15 patients presenting with visual symptoms caused by an aneurysm's mass effect over the anterior optic pathways. These patients were treated at the Department of Neurosurgery, Center of Neurology and Neurosurgery Associates, Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, Brazil. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the variables related to partial or total recovery of the visual symptoms.

Results

All patients underwent microsurgical clip placement and emptying of their aneurysms. After a mean follow-up of 38.5 months, the mean postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4.33, and the visual outcomes were as follows: 1 patient (6.6%) unchanged, 7 (46.6%) improved, and 7 (46.6%) experienced complete recovery from visual deficits. The variables that influenced the visual outcomes were the size of the aneurysm (p = 0.039), duration of the visual symptoms (p = 0.002), aneurysm wall calcification (p = 0.010), and intraluminal thrombosis (p = 0.007). Postoperative examination using digital subtraction angiography showed complete aneurysm occlusion in 14 (93.3%) of the 15 patients.

Conclusions

Intracranial aneurysms causing mass effect over the anterior optic pathways usually present with complex features. The best treatment option must include not only the aneurysm occlusion but also relief of the mass effect. Microsurgical clip placement with reduction of aneurysmal mass effect achieved improvement in visual ability or recovery from visual impairment, as well as total aneurysm occlusion, in 93.3% of the study group. Therefore, this option is well supported as the first choice of treatment for intracranial aneurysms presenting with mass effect over the anterior visual pathways.

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Jean G. de Oliveira, Carlos R. Massella Jr., Carlos Vanderlei M. de Holanda, Miguel Giudicissi-Filho and Luis A. B. Borba

The recommendation for the great majority of high-grade brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) is observation, except for those patients with recurrent hemorrhages, progressive neurological deficits, steal-related symptoms, or AVM-related aneurysms, for whom intervention should be considered. These are general recommendations, and the decision should be made on an individual basis. Surgical resection of an AVM in the central lobe may cause postoperative sensorimotor deficits since this anatomical region includes the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the paracentral lobule on the medial surface.

The authors present a patient with a ruptured high-grade bAVM in the central lobe who underwent previous surgery for hematoma evacuation and previous radiosurgery, and whose indication for reoperation was proposed based on progressive hemiparesis. Microsurgical resection was possible after a wide frontoparietal craniotomy, which made all the nidus borders accessible. This case illustrates the anatomy and surgical technique for large nidus AVMs in eloquent areas, showing that complete microsurgical resection is possible with good clinical outcome.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Cpd1PK6BLIM.