✓Successfully measuring cerebrovascular neurosurgery outcomes requires an appreciation of the current state-of-the-art epidemiological instruments, their specific relevance to surgical treatments and the underlying pathological entity, and ultimately the right set of questions for the next generation of studies. In this paper the authors address these questions with specific attention to measurement targets, individual modeling scales, and types of studies, all within a conceptual framework for specific disease models in their current state of outcomes modeling in cerebrovascular neurosurgery.
Carlos E. Sanchez, Christopher S. Ogilvy and Bob S. Carter
Carlos E. Sanchez, Travis S. Tierney, John T. Gale, Kambiz N. Alavian, Ayguen Sahin, Jeng-Shin Lee, Richard C. Mulligan and Bob S. Carter
Although several clinical trials utilizing the adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 2 serotype 2 (2/2) are now underway, it is unclear whether this particular serotype offers any advantage over others in terms of safety or efficiency when delivered directly to the CNS.
Recombinant AAV2–green fluorescent protein (GFP) serotypes 2/1, 2/2, 2/5, and 2/8 were generated following standard triple transfection protocols (final yield 5.4 × 1012 particles/ml). A total of 180 μl of each solution was stereotactically infused, covering the entire rostrocaudal extent of the caudoputamen in 4 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) (3.0 ± 0.5 kg). After 6 weeks' survival, the brain was formalin fixed, cut at 40 μm, and stained with standard immunohistochemistry for anti-GFP, anticaspase-2, and cell-specific markers (anti–microtubule-associated protein-2 for neurons and anti–glial fibrillary acidic protein for glia). Unbiased stereological counting methods were used to determine cell number and striatal volume.
The entire striatum of each animal contained GFP-positive cells with significant labeling extending beyond the borders of the basal ganglia. No ischemic/necrotic, hemorrhagic, or neoplastic change was observed in any brain. Total infusate volumes were similar across the 4 serotypes. However, GFP-labeled cell density was markedly different. Adeno-associated virus 2/1, 2/2, and 2/5 each labeled < 8000 cells/mm3, whereas serotype 8 labeled > 21,000 cells, a 3- to 4-fold higher transduction efficiency. On the other hand, serotype 8 also labeled neurons and glia with equal affinity compared with neuronal specificities > 89% for the other serotypes. Moderate caspase-2 colabeling was noted in neurons immediately around the AAV2/1 injection tracts, but was not seen above the background anywhere in the brain following injections with serotypes 2, 5, or 8.
Intrastriatal delivery of AAV2 yields the highest cell transduction efficiencies but lowest neuronal specificity for serotype 8 when compared with serotypes 1, 2, and 5. Only AAV2/1 revealed significant caspase-2 activation. Careful consideration of serotype-specific differences in AAV2 neurotropism, transduction efficiency, and potential toxicity may affect future human trials.
Reid Hoshide, Robert C. Rennert, Carlos E. Sanchez, Joel R. Martin, Vincent J. Cheung, Gayle Gyles and Michael L. Levy
Irrigation during intraventricular endoscopic surgery is critical for visualization, with normal intracranial pressure maintained by balancing fluid ingress and egress. Although irrigation is typically achieved through manual manipulation of inexact stopcocks, the authors have developed a rate-controlled, foot pedal–activated system for precise intraventricular irrigation by using a standard irrigating bipolar electrocautery machine.
This study is a retrospective review of patients who underwent endoscopic intraventricular surgery between January 1, 2018, and September 25, 2019, in which this irrigation system was used. Important components of this system include a bipolar module irrigation regulator that is set to a desired rate, a secure connection of the bipolar irrigation tubing to the endoscope, and one or more open egress ports on the endoscope for passive fluid drainage. Nineteen consecutive patients were identified on review (average age ± SD, 4.3 ± 4.1 years). Procedures performed included third ventriculostomies (n = 10); arachnoid/choroid cyst fenestrations/resections (n = 3); biopsy/tumor resection (n = 1); and combined procedures (n = 5). Foot pedal–controlled irrigation provided visualization of all intraventricular structures. A single operator was able to control the endoscope, endoscopic instruments, and irrigation, with assistance as indicated for more complex maneuvers. There were no perioperative complications. Because this setup is easily constructed from a standard irrigating bipolar machine, delivers precise irrigation flow rates, and facilitates a single-surgeon bimanual technique, these data support the utility of foot-controlled irrigation for endoscopic intraventricular surgery.